Auto-Encoding GAN

2017 年 8 月 4 日 CreateAMind
Auto-Encoding GAN

https://github.com/victor-shepardson/alpha-GAN



Variational Approaches for Auto-Encoding Generative Adversarial Networks

Mihaela Rosca, Balaji Lakshminarayanan, David Warde-Farley, Shakir Mohamed

(Submitted on 15 Jun 2017)

Auto-encoding generative adversarial networks (GANs) combine the standard GAN algorithm, which discriminates between real and model-generated data, with a reconstruction loss given by an auto-encoder. Such models aim to prevent mode collapse in the learned generative model by ensuring that it is grounded in all the available training data. In this paper, we develop a principle upon which auto-encoders can be combined with generative adversarial networks by exploiting the hierarchical structure of the generative model. The underlying principle shows that variational inference can be used a basic tool for learning, but with the in- tractable likelihood replaced by a synthetic likelihood, and the unknown posterior distribution replaced by an implicit distribution; both synthetic likelihoods and implicit posterior distributions can be learned using discriminators. This allows us to develop a natural fusion of variational auto-encoders and generative adversarial networks, combining the best of both these methods. We describe a unified objective for optimization, discuss the constraints needed to guide learning, connect to the wide range of existing work, and use a battery of tests to systematically and quantitatively assess the performance of our method.



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GAN:生成性对抗网,深度学习模型的一种,在神经网络模型中引入竞争机制,非常流行。

Both generative adversarial network models and variational autoencoders have been widely used to approximate probability distributions of datasets. Although they both use parametrized distributions to approximate the underlying data distribution, whose exact inference is intractable, their behaviors are very different. In this report, we summarize our experiment results that compare these two categories of models in terms of fidelity and mode collapse. We provide a hypothesis to explain their different behaviors and propose a new model based on this hypothesis. We further tested our proposed model on MNIST dataset and CelebA dataset.

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While Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) have empirically produced impressive results on learning complex real-world distributions, recent work has shown that they suffer from lack of diversity or mode collapse. The theoretical work of Arora et al.~\cite{AroraGeLiMaZh17} suggests a dilemma about GANs' statistical properties: powerful discriminators cause overfitting, whereas weak discriminators cannot detect mode collapse. In contrast, we show in this paper that GANs can in principle learn distributions in Wasserstein distance (or KL-divergence in many cases) with polynomial sample complexity, if the discriminator class has strong distinguishing power against the particular generator class (instead of against all possible generators). For various generator classes such as mixture of Gaussians, exponential families, and invertible neural networks generators, we design corresponding discriminators (which are often neural nets of specific architectures) such that the Integral Probability Metric (IPM) induced by the discriminators can provably approximate the Wasserstein distance and/or KL-divergence. This implies that if the training is successful, then the learned distribution is close to the true distribution in Wasserstein distance or KL divergence, and thus cannot drop modes. Our preliminary experiments show that on synthetic datasets the test IPM is well correlated with KL divergence, indicating that the lack of diversity may be caused by the sub-optimality in optimization instead of statistical inefficiency.

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Network embedding has become a hot research topic recently which can provide low-dimensional feature representations for many machine learning applications. Current work focuses on either (1) whether the embedding is designed as an unsupervised learning task by explicitly preserving the structural connectivity in the network, or (2) whether the embedding is a by-product during the supervised learning of a specific discriminative task in a deep neural network. In this paper, we focus on bridging the gap of the two lines of the research. We propose to adapt the Generative Adversarial model to perform network embedding, in which the generator is trying to generate vertex pairs, while the discriminator tries to distinguish the generated vertex pairs from real connections (edges) in the network. Wasserstein-1 distance is adopted to train the generator to gain better stability. We develop three variations of models, including GANE which applies cosine similarity, GANE-O1 which preserves the first-order proximity, and GANE-O2 which tries to preserves the second-order proximity of the network in the low-dimensional embedded vector space. We later prove that GANE-O2 has the same objective function as GANE-O1 when negative sampling is applied to simplify the training process in GANE-O2. Experiments with real-world network datasets demonstrate that our models constantly outperform state-of-the-art solutions with significant improvements on precision in link prediction, as well as on visualizations and accuracy in clustering tasks.

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We introduce an effective model to overcome the problem of mode collapse when training Generative Adversarial Networks (GAN). Firstly, we propose a new generator objective that finds it better to tackle mode collapse. And, we apply an independent Autoencoders (AE) to constrain the generator and consider its reconstructed samples as "real" samples to slow down the convergence of discriminator that enables to reduce the gradient vanishing problem and stabilize the model. Secondly, from mappings between latent and data spaces provided by AE, we further regularize AE by the relative distance between the latent and data samples to explicitly prevent the generator falling into mode collapse setting. This idea comes when we find a new way to visualize the mode collapse on MNIST dataset. To the best of our knowledge, our method is the first to propose and apply successfully the relative distance of latent and data samples for stabilizing GAN. Thirdly, our proposed model, namely Generative Adversarial Autoencoder Networks (GAAN), is stable and has suffered from neither gradient vanishing nor mode collapse issues, as empirically demonstrated on synthetic, MNIST, MNIST-1K, CelebA and CIFAR-10 datasets. Experimental results show that our method can approximate well multi-modal distribution and achieve better results than state-of-the-art methods on these benchmark datasets. Our model implementation is published here: https://github.com/tntrung/gaan

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Generative adversarial networks (GANs) are powerful tools for learning generative models. In practice, the training may suffer from lack of convergence. GANs are commonly viewed as a two-player zero-sum game between two neural networks. Here, we leverage this game theoretic view to study the convergence behavior of the training process. Inspired by the fictitious play learning process, a novel training method, referred to as Fictitious GAN, is introduced. Fictitious GAN trains the deep neural networks using a mixture of historical models. Specifically, the discriminator (resp. generator) is updated according to the best-response to the mixture outputs from a sequence of previously trained generators (resp. discriminators). It is shown that Fictitious GAN can effectively resolve some convergence issues that cannot be resolved by the standard training approach. It is proved that asymptotically the average of the generator outputs has the same distribution as the data samples.

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We propose the Wasserstein Auto-Encoder (WAE)---a new algorithm for building a generative model of the data distribution. WAE minimizes a penalized form of the Wasserstein distance between the model distribution and the target distribution, which leads to a different regularizer than the one used by the Variational Auto-Encoder (VAE). This regularizer encourages the encoded training distribution to match the prior. We compare our algorithm with several other techniques and show that it is a generalization of adversarial auto-encoders (AAE). Our experiments show that WAE shares many of the properties of VAEs (stable training, encoder-decoder architecture, nice latent manifold structure) while generating samples of better quality, as measured by the FID score.

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We present FusedGAN, a deep network for conditional image synthesis with controllable sampling of diverse images. Fidelity, diversity and controllable sampling are the main quality measures of a good image generation model. Most existing models are insufficient in all three aspects. The FusedGAN can perform controllable sampling of diverse images with very high fidelity. We argue that controllability can be achieved by disentangling the generation process into various stages. In contrast to stacked GANs, where multiple stages of GANs are trained separately with full supervision of labeled intermediate images, the FusedGAN has a single stage pipeline with a built-in stacking of GANs. Unlike existing methods, which requires full supervision with paired conditions and images, the FusedGAN can effectively leverage more abundant images without corresponding conditions in training, to produce more diverse samples with high fidelity. We achieve this by fusing two generators: one for unconditional image generation, and the other for conditional image generation, where the two partly share a common latent space thereby disentangling the generation. We demonstrate the efficacy of the FusedGAN in fine grained image generation tasks such as text-to-image, and attribute-to-face generation.

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We introduce an adversarial learning framework, which we named KBGAN, to improve the performances of a wide range of existing knowledge graph embedding models. Because knowledge graph datasets typically only contain positive facts, sampling useful negative training examples is a non-trivial task. Replacing the head or tail entity of a fact with a uniformly randomly selected entity is a conventional method for generating negative facts used by many previous works, but the majority of negative facts generated in this way can be easily discriminated from positive facts, and will contribute little towards the training. Inspired by generative adversarial networks (GANs), we use one knowledge graph embedding model as a negative sample generator to assist the training of our desired model, which acts as the discriminator in GANs. The objective of the generator is to generate difficult negative samples that can maximize their likeliness determined by the discriminator, while the discriminator minimizes its training loss. This framework is independent of the concrete form of generator and discriminator, and therefore can utilize a wide variety of knowledge graph embedding models as its building blocks. In experiments, we adversarially train two translation-based models, TransE and TransD, each with assistance from one of the two probability-based models, DistMult and ComplEx. We evaluate the performances of KBGAN on the link prediction task, using three knowledge base completion datasets: FB15k-237, WN18 and WN18RR. Experimental results show that adversarial training substantially improves the performances of target embedding models under various settings.

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