In many visual systems, visual tracking often bases on RGB image sequences, in which some targets are invalid in low-light conditions, and tracking performance is thus affected significantly. Introducing other modalities such as depth and infrared data is an effective way to handle imaging limitations of individual sources, but multi-modal imaging platforms usually require elaborate designs and cannot be applied in many real-world applications at present. Near-infrared (NIR) imaging becomes an essential part of many surveillance cameras, whose imaging is switchable between RGB and NIR based on the light intensity. These two modalities are heterogeneous with very different visual properties and thus bring big challenges for visual tracking. However, existing works have not studied this challenging problem. In this work, we address the cross-modal object tracking problem and contribute a new video dataset, including 654 cross-modal image sequences with over 481K frames in total, and the average video length is more than 735 frames. To promote the research and development of cross-modal object tracking, we propose a new algorithm, which learns the modality-aware target representation to mitigate the appearance gap between RGB and NIR modalities in the tracking process. It is plug-and-play and could thus be flexibly embedded into different tracking frameworks. Extensive experiments on the dataset are conducted, and we demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm in two representative tracking frameworks against 17 state-of-the-art tracking methods. We will release the dataset for free academic usage, dataset download link and code will be released soon.
Owing to effective and flexible data acquisition, unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) has recently become a hotspot across the fields of computer vision (CV) and remote sensing (RS). Inspired by recent success of deep learning (DL), many advanced object detection and tracking approaches have been widely applied to various UAV-related tasks, such as environmental monitoring, precision agriculture, traffic management. This paper provides a comprehensive survey on the research progress and prospects of DL-based UAV object detection and tracking methods. More specifically, we first outline the challenges, statistics of existing methods, and provide solutions from the perspectives of DL-based models in three research topics: object detection from the image, object detection from the video, and object tracking from the video. Open datasets related to UAV-dominated object detection and tracking are exhausted, and four benchmark datasets are employed for performance evaluation using some state-of-the-art methods. Finally, prospects and considerations for the future work are discussed and summarized. It is expected that this survey can facilitate those researchers who come from remote sensing field with an overview of DL-based UAV object detection and tracking methods, along with some thoughts on their further developments.
In video object tracking, there exist rich temporal contexts among successive frames, which have been largely overlooked in existing trackers. In this work, we bridge the individual video frames and explore the temporal contexts across them via a transformer architecture for robust object tracking. Different from classic usage of the transformer in natural language processing tasks, we separate its encoder and decoder into two parallel branches and carefully design them within the Siamese-like tracking pipelines. The transformer encoder promotes the target templates via attention-based feature reinforcement, which benefits the high-quality tracking model generation. The transformer decoder propagates the tracking cues from previous templates to the current frame, which facilitates the object searching process. Our transformer-assisted tracking framework is neat and trained in an end-to-end manner. With the proposed transformer, a simple Siamese matching approach is able to outperform the current top-performing trackers. By combining our transformer with the recent discriminative tracking pipeline, our method sets several new state-of-the-art records on prevalent tracking benchmarks.
Since real-world objects and their interactions are often multi-modal and multi-typed, heterogeneous networks have been widely used as a more powerful, realistic, and generic superclass of traditional homogeneous networks (graphs). Meanwhile, representation learning (\aka~embedding) has recently been intensively studied and shown effective for various network mining and analytical tasks. In this work, we aim to provide a unified framework to deeply summarize and evaluate existing research on heterogeneous network embedding (HNE), which includes but goes beyond a normal survey. Since there has already been a broad body of HNE algorithms, as the first contribution of this work, we provide a generic paradigm for the systematic categorization and analysis over the merits of various existing HNE algorithms. Moreover, existing HNE algorithms, though mostly claimed generic, are often evaluated on different datasets. Understandable due to the application favor of HNE, such indirect comparisons largely hinder the proper attribution of improved task performance towards effective data preprocessing and novel technical design, especially considering the various ways possible to construct a heterogeneous network from real-world application data. Therefore, as the second contribution, we create four benchmark datasets with various properties regarding scale, structure, attribute/label availability, and \etc.~from different sources, towards handy and fair evaluations of HNE algorithms. As the third contribution, we carefully refactor and amend the implementations and create friendly interfaces for 13 popular HNE algorithms, and provide all-around comparisons among them over multiple tasks and experimental settings.
In this paper, we address the semantic segmentation problem with a focus on the context aggregation strategy. Our motivation is that the label of a pixel is the category of the object that the pixel belongs to. We present a simple yet effective approach, object-contextual representations, characterizing a pixel by exploiting the representation of the corresponding object class. First, we learn object regions under the supervision of the ground-truth segmentation. Second, we compute the object region representation by aggregating the representations of the pixels lying in the object region. Last, % the representation similarity we compute the relation between each pixel and each object region, and augment the representation of each pixel with the object-contextual representation which is a weighted aggregation of all the object region representations according to their relations with the pixel. We empirically demonstrate that the proposed approach achieves competitive performance on various challenging semantic segmentation benchmarks: Cityscapes, ADE20K, LIP, PASCAL-Context, and COCO-Stuff.
The problem of Multiple Object Tracking (MOT) consists in following the trajectory of different objects in a sequence, usually a video. In recent years, with the rise of Deep Learning, the algorithms that provide a solution to this problem have benefited from the representational power of deep models. This paper provides a comprehensive survey on works that employ Deep Learning models to solve the task of MOT on single-camera videos. Four main steps in MOT algorithms are identified, and an in-depth review of how Deep Learning was employed in each one of these stages is presented. A complete experimental comparison of the presented works on the three MOTChallenge datasets is also provided, identifying a number of similarities among the top-performing methods and presenting some possible future research directions.
Planar object tracking is an actively studied problem in vision-based robotic applications. While several benchmarks have been constructed for evaluating state-of-the-art algorithms, there is a lack of video sequences captured in the wild rather than in constrained laboratory environment. In this paper, we present a carefully designed planar object tracking benchmark containing 210 videos of 30 planar objects sampled in the natural environment. In particular, for each object, we shoot seven videos involving various challenging factors, namely scale change, rotation, perspective distortion, motion blur, occlusion, out-of-view, and unconstrained. The ground truth is carefully annotated semi-manually to ensure the quality. Moreover, eleven state-of-the-art algorithms are evaluated on the benchmark using two evaluation metrics, with detailed analysis provided for the evaluation results. We expect the proposed benchmark to benefit future studies on planar object tracking.
While generic object detection has achieved large improvements with rich feature hierarchies from deep nets, detecting small objects with poor visual cues remains challenging. Motion cues from multiple frames may be more informative for detecting such hard-to-distinguish objects in each frame. However, how to encode discriminative motion patterns, such as deformations and pose changes that characterize objects, has remained an open question. To learn them and thereby realize small object detection, we present a neural model called the Recurrent Correlational Network, where detection and tracking are jointly performed over a multi-frame representation learned through a single, trainable, and end-to-end network. A convolutional long short-term memory network is utilized for learning informative appearance change for detection, while learned representation is shared in tracking for enhancing its performance. In experiments with datasets containing images of scenes with small flying objects, such as birds and unmanned aerial vehicles, the proposed method yielded consistent improvements in detection performance over deep single-frame detectors and existing motion-based detectors. Furthermore, our network performs as well as state-of-the-art generic object trackers when it was evaluated as a tracker on the bird dataset.
Despite the numerous developments in object tracking, further development of current tracking algorithms is limited by small and mostly saturated datasets. As a matter of fact, data-hungry trackers based on deep-learning currently rely on object detection datasets due to the scarcity of dedicated large-scale tracking datasets. In this work, we present TrackingNet, the first large-scale dataset and benchmark for object tracking in the wild. We provide more than 30K videos with more than 14 million dense bounding box annotations. Our dataset covers a wide selection of object classes in broad and diverse context. By releasing such a large-scale dataset, we expect deep trackers to further improve and generalize. In addition, we introduce a new benchmark composed of 500 novel videos, modeled with a distribution similar to our training dataset. By sequestering the annotation of the test set and providing an online evaluation server, we provide a fair benchmark for future development of object trackers. Deep trackers fine-tuned on a fraction of our dataset improve their performance by up to 1.6% on OTB100 and up to 1.7% on TrackingNet Test. We provide an extensive benchmark on TrackingNet by evaluating more than 20 trackers. Our results suggest that object tracking in the wild is far from being solved.
Visual object tracking is an important computer vision problem with numerous real-world applications including human-computer interaction, autonomous vehicles, robotics, motion-based recognition, video indexing, surveillance and security. In this paper, we aim to extensively review the latest trends and advances in the tracking algorithms and evaluate the robustness of trackers in the presence of noise. The first part of this work comprises a comprehensive survey of recently proposed tracking algorithms. We broadly categorize trackers into correlation filter based trackers and the others as non-correlation filter trackers. Each category is further classified into various types of trackers based on the architecture of the tracking mechanism. In the second part of this work, we experimentally evaluate tracking algorithms for robustness in the presence of additive white Gaussian noise. Multiple levels of additive noise are added to the Object Tracking Benchmark (OTB) 2015, and the precision and success rates of the tracking algorithms are evaluated. Some algorithms suffered more performance degradation than others, which brings to light a previously unexplored aspect of the tracking algorithms. The relative rank of the algorithms based on their performance on benchmark datasets may change in the presence of noise. Our study concludes that no single tracker is able to achieve the same efficiency in the presence of noise as under noise-free conditions; thus, there is a need to include a parameter for robustness to noise when evaluating newly proposed tracking algorithms.
In this paper, we propose a new long video dataset (called Track Long and Prosper - TLP) and benchmark for visual object tracking. The dataset consists of 50 videos from real world scenarios, encompassing a duration of over 400 minutes (676K frames), making it more than 20 folds larger in average duration per sequence and more than 8 folds larger in terms of total covered duration, as compared to existing generic datasets for visual tracking. The proposed dataset paves a way to suitably assess long term tracking performance and possibly train better deep learning architectures (avoiding/reducing augmentation, which may not reflect realistic real world behavior). We benchmark the dataset on 17 state of the art trackers and rank them according to tracking accuracy and run time speeds. We further categorize the test sequences with different attributes and present a thorough quantitative and qualitative evaluation. Our most interesting observations are (a) existing short sequence benchmarks fail to bring out the inherent differences in tracking algorithms which widen up while tracking on long sequences and (b) the accuracy of most trackers abruptly drops on challenging long sequences, suggesting the potential need of research efforts in the direction of long term tracking.