Despite the numerous developments in object tracking, further development of current tracking algorithms is limited by small and mostly saturated datasets. As a matter of fact, data-hungry trackers based on deep-learning currently rely on object detection datasets due to the scarcity of dedicated large-scale tracking datasets. In this work, we present TrackingNet, the first large-scale dataset and benchmark for object tracking in the wild. We provide more than 30K videos with more than 14 million dense bounding box annotations. Our dataset covers a wide selection of object classes in broad and diverse context. By releasing such a large-scale dataset, we expect deep trackers to further improve and generalize. In addition, we introduce a new benchmark composed of 500 novel videos, modeled with a distribution similar to our training dataset. By sequestering the annotation of the test set and providing an online evaluation server, we provide a fair benchmark for future development of object trackers. Deep trackers fine-tuned on a fraction of our dataset improve their performance by up to 1.6% on OTB100 and up to 1.7% on TrackingNet Test. We provide an extensive benchmark on TrackingNet by evaluating more than 20 trackers. Our results suggest that object tracking in the wild is far from being solved.

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Substantial efforts have been devoted more recently to presenting various methods for object detection in optical remote sensing images. However, the current survey of datasets and deep learning based methods for object detection in optical remote sensing images is not adequate. Moreover, most of the existing datasets have some shortcomings, for example, the numbers of images and object categories are small scale, and the image diversity and variations are insufficient. These limitations greatly affect the development of deep learning based object detection methods. In the paper, we provide a comprehensive review of the recent deep learning based object detection progress in both the computer vision and earth observation communities. Then, we propose a large-scale, publicly available benchmark for object DetectIon in Optical Remote sensing images, which we name as DIOR. The dataset contains 23463 images and 192472 instances, covering 20 object classes. The proposed DIOR dataset 1) is large-scale on the object categories, on the object instance number, and on the total image number; 2) has a large range of object size variations, not only in terms of spatial resolutions, but also in the aspect of inter- and intra-class size variability across objects; 3) holds big variations as the images are obtained with different imaging conditions, weathers, seasons, and image quality; and 4) has high inter-class similarity and intra-class diversity. The proposed benchmark can help the researchers to develop and validate their data-driven methods. Finally, we evaluate several state-of-the-art approaches on our DIOR dataset to establish a baseline for future research.

The current strive towards end-to-end trainable computer vision systems imposes major challenges for the task of visual tracking. In contrast to most other vision problems, tracking requires the learning of a robust target-specific appearance model online, during the inference stage. To be end-to-end trainable, the online learning of the target model thus needs to be embedded in the tracking architecture itself. Due to these difficulties, the popular Siamese paradigm simply predicts a target feature template. However, such a model possesses limited discriminative power due to its inability of integrating background information. We develop an end-to-end tracking architecture, capable of fully exploiting both target and background appearance information for target model prediction. Our architecture is derived from a discriminative learning loss by designing a dedicated optimization process that is capable of predicting a powerful model in only a few iterations. Furthermore, our approach is able to learn key aspects of the discriminative loss itself. The proposed tracker sets a new state-of-the-art on 6 tracking benchmarks, achieving an EAO score of 0.440 on VOT2018, while running at over 40 FPS.

In recent years, object detection has experienced impressive progress. Despite these improvements, there is still a significant gap in the performance between the detection of small and large objects. We analyze the current state-of-the-art model, Mask-RCNN, on a challenging dataset, MS COCO. We show that the overlap between small ground-truth objects and the predicted anchors is much lower than the expected IoU threshold. We conjecture this is due to two factors; (1) only a few images are containing small objects, and (2) small objects do not appear enough even within each image containing them. We thus propose to oversample those images with small objects and augment each of those images by copy-pasting small objects many times. It allows us to trade off the quality of the detector on large objects with that on small objects. We evaluate different pasting augmentation strategies, and ultimately, we achieve 9.7\% relative improvement on the instance segmentation and 7.1\% on the object detection of small objects, compared to the current state of the art method on MS COCO.

Image captioning models have achieved impressive results on datasets containing limited visual concepts and large amounts of paired image-caption training data. However, if these models are to ever function in the wild, a much larger variety of visual concepts must be learned, ideally from less supervision. To encourage the development of image captioning models that can learn visual concepts from alternative data sources, such as object detection datasets, we present the first large-scale benchmark for this task. Dubbed 'nocaps', for novel object captioning at scale, our benchmark consists of 166,100 human-generated captions describing 15,100 images from the Open Images validation and test sets. The associated training data consists of COCO image-caption pairs, plus Open Images image-level labels and object bounding boxes. Since Open Images contains many more classes than COCO, more than 500 object classes seen in test images have no training captions (hence, nocaps). We evaluate several existing approaches to novel object captioning on our challenging benchmark. In automatic evaluations these approaches show modest improvements over a strong baseline trained only on image-caption data. However, even when using ground-truth object detections, the results are significantly weaker than our human baseline - indicating substantial room for improvement.

Model update lies at the heart of object tracking.Generally, model update is formulated as an online learning problem where a target model is learned over the online training dataset. Our key innovation is to \emph{learn the online learning algorithm itself using large number of offline videos}, i.e., \emph{learning to update}. The learned updater takes as input the online training dataset and outputs an updated target model. As a first attempt, we design the learned updater based on recurrent neural networks (RNNs) and demonstrate its application in a template-based tracker and a correlation filter-based tracker. Our learned updater consistently improves the base trackers and runs faster than realtime on GPU while requiring small memory footprint during testing. Experiments on standard benchmarks demonstrate that our learned updater outperforms commonly used update baselines including the efficient exponential moving average (EMA)-based update and the well-designed stochastic gradient descent (SGD)-based update. Equipped with our learned updater, the template-based tracker achieves state-of-the-art performance among realtime trackers on GPU.

Planar object tracking is an actively studied problem in vision-based robotic applications. While several benchmarks have been constructed for evaluating state-of-the-art algorithms, there is a lack of video sequences captured in the wild rather than in constrained laboratory environment. In this paper, we present a carefully designed planar object tracking benchmark containing 210 videos of 30 planar objects sampled in the natural environment. In particular, for each object, we shoot seven videos involving various challenging factors, namely scale change, rotation, perspective distortion, motion blur, occlusion, out-of-view, and unconstrained. The ground truth is carefully annotated semi-manually to ensure the quality. Moreover, eleven state-of-the-art algorithms are evaluated on the benchmark using two evaluation metrics, with detailed analysis provided for the evaluation results. We expect the proposed benchmark to benefit future studies on planar object tracking.

We present a challenging and realistic novel dataset for evaluating 6-DOF object tracking algorithms. Existing datasets show serious limitations---notably, unrealistic synthetic data, or real data with large fiducial markers---preventing the community from obtaining an accurate picture of the state-of-the-art. Our key contribution is a novel pipeline for acquiring accurate ground truth poses of real objects w.r.t a Kinect V2 sensor by using a commercial motion capture system. A total of 100 calibrated sequences of real objects are acquired in three different scenarios to evaluate the performance of trackers in various scenarios: stability, robustness to occlusion and accuracy during challenging interactions between a person and the object. We conduct an extensive study of a deep 6-DOF tracking architecture and determine a set of optimal parameters. We enhance the architecture and the training methodology to train a 6-DOF tracker that can robustly generalize to objects never seen during training, and demonstrate favorable performance compared to previous approaches trained specifically on the objects to track.

Template-matching methods for visual tracking have gained popularity recently due to their comparable performance and fast speed. However, they lack effective ways to adapt to changes in the target object's appearance, making their tracking accuracy still far from state-of-the-art. In this paper, we propose a dynamic memory network to adapt the template to the target's appearance variations during tracking. An LSTM is used as a memory controller, where the input is the search feature map and the outputs are the control signals for the reading and writing process of the memory block. As the location of the target is at first unknown in the search feature map, an attention mechanism is applied to concentrate the LSTM input on the potential target. To prevent aggressive model adaptivity, we apply gated residual template learning to control the amount of retrieved memory that is used to combine with the initial template. Unlike tracking-by-detection methods where the object's information is maintained by the weight parameters of neural networks, which requires expensive online fine-tuning to be adaptable, our tracker runs completely feed-forward and adapts to the target's appearance changes by updating the external memory. Moreover, the capacity of our model is not determined by the network size as with other trackers -- the capacity can be easily enlarged as the memory requirements of a task increase, which is favorable for memorizing long-term object information. Extensive experiments on OTB and VOT demonstrates that our tracker MemTrack performs favorably against state-of-the-art tracking methods while retaining real-time speed of 50 fps.

Object detection is an important and challenging problem in computer vision. Although the past decade has witnessed major advances in object detection in natural scenes, such successes have been slow to aerial imagery, not only because of the huge variation in the scale, orientation and shape of the object instances on the earth's surface, but also due to the scarcity of well-annotated datasets of objects in aerial scenes. To advance object detection research in Earth Vision, also known as Earth Observation and Remote Sensing, we introduce a large-scale Dataset for Object deTection in Aerial images (DOTA). To this end, we collect $2806$ aerial images from different sensors and platforms. Each image is of the size about 4000-by-4000 pixels and contains objects exhibiting a wide variety of scales, orientations, and shapes. These DOTA images are then annotated by experts in aerial image interpretation using $15$ common object categories. The fully annotated DOTA images contains $188,282$ instances, each of which is labeled by an arbitrary (8 d.o.f.) quadrilateral To build a baseline for object detection in Earth Vision, we evaluate state-of-the-art object detection algorithms on DOTA. Experiments demonstrate that DOTA well represents real Earth Vision applications and are quite challenging.

In this paper, we propose a new long video dataset (called Track Long and Prosper - TLP) and benchmark for visual object tracking. The dataset consists of 50 videos from real world scenarios, encompassing a duration of over 400 minutes (676K frames), making it more than 20 folds larger in average duration per sequence and more than 8 folds larger in terms of total covered duration, as compared to existing generic datasets for visual tracking. The proposed dataset paves a way to suitably assess long term tracking performance and possibly train better deep learning architectures (avoiding/reducing augmentation, which may not reflect realistic real world behavior). We benchmark the dataset on 17 state of the art trackers and rank them according to tracking accuracy and run time speeds. We further categorize the test sequences with different attributes and present a thorough quantitative and qualitative evaluation. Our most interesting observations are (a) existing short sequence benchmarks fail to bring out the inherent differences in tracking algorithms which widen up while tracking on long sequences and (b) the accuracy of most trackers abruptly drops on challenging long sequences, suggesting the potential need of research efforts in the direction of long term tracking.

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