Most research in reading comprehension has focused on answering questions based on individual documents or even single paragraphs. We introduce a method which integrates and reasons relying on information spread within documents and across multiple documents. We frame it as an inference problem on a graph. Mentions of entities are nodes of this graph where edges encode relations between different mentions (e.g., within- and cross-document co-references). Graph convolutional networks (GCNs) are applied to these graphs and trained to perform multi-step reasoning. Our Entity-GCN method is scalable and compact, and it achieves state-of-the-art results on the WikiHop dataset (Welbl et al. 2017).
Commonsense reasoning aims to empower machines with the human ability to make presumptions about ordinary situations in our daily life. In this paper, we propose a textual inference framework for answering commonsense questions, which effectively utilizes external, structured commonsense knowledge graphs to perform explainable inferences. The framework first grounds a question-answer pair from the semantic space to the knowledge-based symbolic space as a schema graph, a related sub-graph of external knowledge graphs. It represents schema graphs with a novel knowledge-aware graph network module named KagNet, and finally scores answers with graph representations. Our model is based on graph convolutional networks and LSTMs, with a hierarchical path-based attention mechanism. The intermediate attention scores make it transparent and interpretable, which thus produce trustworthy inferences. Using ConceptNet as the only external resource for Bert-based models, we achieved state-of-the-art performance on the CommonsenseQA, a large-scale dataset for commonsense reasoning.
Two types of knowledge, triples from knowledge graphs and texts from documents, have been studied for knowledge aware open-domain conversation generation, in which graph paths can narrow down vertex candidates for knowledge selection decision, and texts can provide rich information for response generation. Fusion of a knowledge graph and texts might yield mutually reinforcing advantages, but there is less study on that. To address this challenge, we propose a knowledge aware chatting machine with three components, an augmented knowledge graph with both triples and texts, knowledge selector, and knowledge aware response generator. For knowledge selection on the graph, we formulate it as a problem of multi-hop graph reasoning to effectively capture conversation flow, which is more explainable and flexible in comparison with previous work. To fully leverage long text information that differentiates our graph from others, we improve a state of the art reasoning algorithm with machine reading comprehension technology. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our system on two datasets in comparison with state-of-the-art models.
This paper describes a novel hierarchical attention network for reading comprehension style question answering, which aims to answer questions for a given narrative paragraph. In the proposed method, attention and fusion are conducted horizontally and vertically across layers at different levels of granularity between question and paragraph. Specifically, it first encode the question and paragraph with fine-grained language embeddings, to better capture the respective representations at semantic level. Then it proposes a multi-granularity fusion approach to fully fuse information from both global and attended representations. Finally, it introduces a hierarchical attention network to focuses on the answer span progressively with multi-level softalignment. Extensive experiments on the large-scale SQuAD and TriviaQA datasets validate the effectiveness of the proposed method. At the time of writing the paper (Jan. 12th 2018), our model achieves the first position on the SQuAD leaderboard for both single and ensemble models. We also achieves state-of-the-art results on TriviaQA, AddSent and AddOne-Sent datasets.
Machine reading comprehension with unanswerable questions aims to abstain from answering when no answer can be inferred. In addition to extract answers, previous works usually predict an additional "no-answer" probability to detect unanswerable cases. However, they fail to validate the answerability of the question by verifying the legitimacy of the predicted answer. To address this problem, we propose a novel read-then-verify system, which not only utilizes a neural reader to extract candidate answers and produce no-answer probabilities, but also leverages an answer verifier to decide whether the predicted answer is entailed by the input snippets. Moreover, we introduce two auxiliary losses to help the reader better handle answer extraction as well as no-answer detection, and investigate three different architectures for the answer verifier. Our experiments on the SQuAD 2.0 dataset show that our system achieves a score of 74.2 F1 on the test set, achieving state-of-the-art results at the time of submission (Aug. 28th, 2018).
Text Classification is an important and classical problem in natural language processing. There have been a number of studies that applied convolutional neural networks (convolution on regular grid, e.g., sequence) to classification. However, only a limited number of studies have explored the more flexible graph convolutional neural networks (e.g., convolution on non-grid, e.g., arbitrary graph) for the task. In this work, we propose to use graph convolutional networks for text classification. We build a single text graph for a corpus based on word co-occurrence and document word relations, then learn a Text Graph Convolutional Network (Text GCN) for the corpus. Our Text GCN is initialized with one-hot representation for word and document, it then jointly learns the embeddings for both words and documents, as supervised by the known class labels for documents. Our experimental results on multiple benchmark datasets demonstrate that a vanilla Text GCN without any external word embeddings or knowledge outperforms state-of-the-art methods for text classification. On the other hand, Text GCN also learns predictive word and document embeddings. In addition, experimental results show that the improvement of Text GCN over state-of-the-art comparison methods become more prominent as we lower the percentage of training data, suggesting the robustness of Text GCN to less training data in text classification.
Multi-hop reading comprehension focuses on one type of factoid question, where a system needs to properly integrate multiple pieces of evidence to correctly answer a question. Previous work approximates global evidence with local coreference information, encoding coreference chains with DAG-styled GRU layers within a gated-attention reader. However, coreference is limited in providing information for rich inference. We introduce a new method for better connecting global evidence, which forms more complex graphs compared to DAGs. To perform evidence integration on our graphs, we investigate two recent graph neural networks, namely graph convolutional network (GCN) and graph recurrent network (GRN). Experiments on two standard datasets show that richer global information leads to better answers. Our method performs better than all published results on these datasets.
We examine the problem of question answering over knowledge graphs, focusing on simple questions that can be answered by the lookup of a single fact. Adopting a straightforward decomposition of the problem into entity detection, entity linking, relation prediction, and evidence combination, we explore simple yet strong baselines. On the popular SimpleQuestions dataset, we find that basic LSTMs and GRUs plus a few heuristics yield accuracies that approach the state of the art, and techniques that do not use neural networks also perform reasonably well. These results show that gains from sophisticated deep learning techniques proposed in the literature are quite modest and that some previous models exhibit unnecessary complexity.
Answering complex questions is a time-consuming activity for humans that requires reasoning and integration of information. Recent work on reading comprehension made headway in answering simple questions, but tackling complex questions is still an ongoing research challenge. Conversely, semantic parsers have been successful at handling compositionality, but only when the information resides in a target knowledge-base. In this paper, we present a novel framework for answering broad and complex questions, assuming answering simple questions is possible using a search engine and a reading comprehension model. We propose to decompose complex questions into a sequence of simple questions, and compute the final answer from the sequence of answers. To illustrate the viability of our approach, we create a new dataset of complex questions, ComplexWebQuestions, and present a model that decomposes questions and interacts with the web to compute an answer. We empirically demonstrate that question decomposition improves performance from 20.8 precision@1 to 27.5 precision@1 on this new dataset.
We present graph attention networks (GATs), novel neural network architectures that operate on graph-structured data, leveraging masked self-attentional layers to address the shortcomings of prior methods based on graph convolutions or their approximations. By stacking layers in which nodes are able to attend over their neighborhoods' features, we enable (implicitly) specifying different weights to different nodes in a neighborhood, without requiring any kind of costly matrix operation (such as inversion) or depending on knowing the graph structure upfront. In this way, we address several key challenges of spectral-based graph neural networks simultaneously, and make our model readily applicable to inductive as well as transductive problems. Our GAT models have achieved or matched state-of-the-art results across four established transductive and inductive graph benchmarks: the Cora, Citeseer and Pubmed citation network datasets, as well as a protein-protein interaction dataset (wherein test graphs remain unseen during training).
Multi-relation Question Answering is a challenging task, due to the requirement of elaborated analysis on questions and reasoning over multiple fact triples in knowledge base. In this paper, we present a novel model called Interpretable Reasoning Network that employs an interpretable, hop-by-hop reasoning process for question answering. The model dynamically decides which part of an input question should be analyzed at each hop; predicts a relation that corresponds to the current parsed results; utilizes the predicted relation to update the question representation and the state of the reasoning process; and then drives the next-hop reasoning. Experiments show that our model yields state-of-the-art results on two datasets. More interestingly, the model can offer traceable and observable intermediate predictions for reasoning analysis and failure diagnosis.