The past few years have witnessed renewed interest in NLP tasks at the interface between vision and language. One intensively-studied problem is that of automatically generating text from images. In this paper, we extend this problem to the more specific domain of face description. Unlike scene descriptions, face descriptions are more fine-grained and rely on attributes extracted from the image, rather than objects and relations. Given that no data exists for this task, we present an ongoing crowdsourcing study to collect a corpus of descriptions of face images taken `in the wild'. To gain a better understanding of the variation we find in face description and the possible issues that this may raise, we also conducted an annotation study on a subset of the corpus. Primarily, we found descriptions to refer to a mixture of attributes, not only physical, but also emotional and inferential, which is bound to create further challenges for current image-to-text methods.
Scene graph generation has emerged as an important problem in computer vision. While scene graphs provide a grounded representation of objects, their locations and relations in an image, they do so only at the granularity of proposal bounding boxes. In this work, we propose the first, to our knowledge, framework for pixel-level segmentation-grounded scene graph generation. Our framework is agnostic to the underlying scene graph generation method and address the lack of segmentation annotations in target scene graph datasets (e.g., Visual Genome) through transfer and multi-task learning from, and with, an auxiliary dataset (e.g., MS COCO). Specifically, each target object being detected is endowed with a segmentation mask, which is expressed as a lingual-similarity weighted linear combination over categories that have annotations present in an auxiliary dataset. These inferred masks, along with a novel Gaussian attention mechanism which grounds the relations at a pixel-level within the image, allow for improved relation prediction. The entire framework is end-to-end trainable and is learned in a multi-task manner with both target and auxiliary datasets.
Query understanding is a fundamental problem in information retrieval (IR), which has attracted continuous attention through the past decades. Many different tasks have been proposed for understanding users' search queries, e.g., query classification or query clustering. However, it is not that precise to understand a search query at the intent class/cluster level due to the loss of many detailed information. As we may find in many benchmark datasets, e.g., TREC and SemEval, queries are often associated with a detailed description provided by human annotators which clearly describes its intent to help evaluate the relevance of the documents. If a system could automatically generate a detailed and precise intent description for a search query, like human annotators, that would indicate much better query understanding has been achieved. In this paper, therefore, we propose a novel Query-to-Intent-Description (Q2ID) task for query understanding. Unlike those existing ranking tasks which leverage the query and its description to compute the relevance of documents, Q2ID is a reverse task which aims to generate a natural language intent description based on both relevant and irrelevant documents of a given query. To address this new task, we propose a novel Contrastive Generation model, namely CtrsGen for short, to generate the intent description by contrasting the relevant documents with the irrelevant documents given a query. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our model by comparing with several state-of-the-art generation models on the Q2ID task. We discuss the potential usage of such Q2ID technique through an example application.
Swapping text in scene images while preserving original fonts, colors, sizes and background textures is a challenging task due to the complex interplay between different factors. In this work, we present SwapText, a three-stage framework to transfer texts across scene images. First, a novel text swapping network is proposed to replace text labels only in the foreground image. Second, a background completion network is learned to reconstruct background images. Finally, the generated foreground image and background image are used to generate the word image by the fusion network. Using the proposing framework, we can manipulate the texts of the input images even with severe geometric distortion. Qualitative and quantitative results are presented on several scene text datasets, including regular and irregular text datasets. We conducted extensive experiments to prove the usefulness of our method such as image based text translation, text image synthesis, etc.
Sufficient supervised information is crucial for any machine learning models to boost performance. However, labeling data is expensive and sometimes difficult to obtain. Active learning is an approach to acquire annotations for data from a human oracle by selecting informative samples with a high probability to enhance performance. In recent emerging studies, a generative adversarial network (GAN) has been integrated with active learning to generate good candidates to be presented to the oracle. In this paper, we propose a novel model that is able to obtain labels for data in a cheaper manner without the need to query an oracle. In the model, a novel reward for each sample is devised to measure the degree of uncertainty, which is obtained from a classifier trained with existing labeled data. This reward is used to guide a conditional GAN to generate informative samples with a higher probability for a certain label. With extensive evaluations, we have confirmed the effectiveness of the model, showing that the generated samples are capable of improving the classification performance in popular image classification tasks.
To understand a scene in depth not only involves locating/recognizing individual objects, but also requires to infer the relationships and interactions among them. However, since the distribution of real-world relationships is seriously unbalanced, existing methods perform quite poorly for the less frequent relationships. In this work, we find that the statistical correlations between object pairs and their relationships can effectively regularize semantic space and make prediction less ambiguous, and thus well address the unbalanced distribution issue. To achieve this, we incorporate these statistical correlations into deep neural networks to facilitate scene graph generation by developing a Knowledge-Embedded Routing Network. More specifically, we show that the statistical correlations between objects appearing in images and their relationships, can be explicitly represented by a structured knowledge graph, and a routing mechanism is learned to propagate messages through the graph to explore their interactions. Extensive experiments on the large-scale Visual Genome dataset demonstrate the superiority of the proposed method over current state-of-the-art competitors.
Generating realistic images from scene graphs asks neural networks to be able to reason about object relationships and compositionality. As a relatively new task, how to properly ensure the generated images comply with scene graphs or how to measure task performance remains an open question. In this paper, we propose to harness scene graph context to improve image generation from scene graphs. We introduce a scene graph context network that pools features generated by a graph convolutional neural network that are then provided to both the image generation network and the adversarial loss. With the context network, our model is trained to not only generate realistic looking images, but also to better preserve non-spatial object relationships. We also define two novel evaluation metrics, the relation score and the mean opinion relation score, for this task that directly evaluate scene graph compliance. We use both quantitative and qualitative studies to demonstrate that our pro-posed model outperforms the state-of-the-art on this challenging task.
Driven by successes in deep learning, computer vision research has begun to move beyond object detection and image classification to more sophisticated tasks like image captioning or visual question answering. Motivating such endeavors is the desire for models to capture not only objects present in an image, but more fine-grained aspects of a scene such as relationships between objects and their attributes. Scene graphs provide a formal construct for capturing these aspects of an image. Despite this, there have been only a few recent efforts to generate scene graphs from imagery. Previous works limit themselves to settings where bounding box information is available at train time and do not attempt to generate scene graphs with attributes. In this paper we propose a method, based on recent advancements in Generative Adversarial Networks, to overcome these deficiencies. We take the approach of first generating small subgraphs, each describing a single statement about a scene from a specific region of the input image chosen using an attention mechanism. By doing so, our method is able to produce portions of the scene graphs with attribute information without the need for bounding box labels. Then, the complete scene graph is constructed from these subgraphs. We show that our model improves upon prior work in scene graph generation on state-of-the-art data sets and accepted metrics. Further, we demonstrate that our model is capable of handling a larger vocabulary size than prior work has attempted.
Automatic image captioning has recently approached human-level performance due to the latest advances in computer vision and natural language understanding. However, most of the current models can only generate plain factual descriptions about the content of a given image. However, for human beings, image caption writing is quite flexible and diverse, where additional language dimensions, such as emotion, humor and language styles, are often incorporated to produce diverse, emotional, or appealing captions. In particular, we are interested in generating sentiment-conveying image descriptions, which has received little attention. The main challenge is how to effectively inject sentiments into the generated captions without altering the semantic matching between the visual content and the generated descriptions. In this work, we propose two different models, which employ different schemes for injecting sentiments into image captions. Compared with the few existing approaches, the proposed models are much simpler and yet more effective. The experimental results show that our model outperform the state-of-the-art models in generating sentimental (i.e., sentiment-bearing) image captions. In addition, we can also easily manipulate the model by assigning different sentiments to the testing image to generate captions with the corresponding sentiments.
Object detection is an important and challenging problem in computer vision. Although the past decade has witnessed major advances in object detection in natural scenes, such successes have been slow to aerial imagery, not only because of the huge variation in the scale, orientation and shape of the object instances on the earth's surface, but also due to the scarcity of well-annotated datasets of objects in aerial scenes. To advance object detection research in Earth Vision, also known as Earth Observation and Remote Sensing, we introduce a large-scale Dataset for Object deTection in Aerial images (DOTA). To this end, we collect $2806$ aerial images from different sensors and platforms. Each image is of the size about 4000-by-4000 pixels and contains objects exhibiting a wide variety of scales, orientations, and shapes. These DOTA images are then annotated by experts in aerial image interpretation using $15$ common object categories. The fully annotated DOTA images contains $188,282$ instances, each of which is labeled by an arbitrary (8 d.o.f.) quadrilateral To build a baseline for object detection in Earth Vision, we evaluate state-of-the-art object detection algorithms on DOTA. Experiments demonstrate that DOTA well represents real Earth Vision applications and are quite challenging.
Inspired by recent development of artificial satellite, remote sensing images have attracted extensive attention. Recently, noticeable progress has been made in scene classification and target detection.However, it is still not clear how to describe the remote sensing image content with accurate and concise sentences. In this paper, we investigate to describe the remote sensing images with accurate and flexible sentences. First, some annotated instructions are presented to better describe the remote sensing images considering the special characteristics of remote sensing images. Second, in order to exhaustively exploit the contents of remote sensing images, a large-scale aerial image data set is constructed for remote sensing image caption. Finally, a comprehensive review is presented on the proposed data set to fully advance the task of remote sensing caption. Extensive experiments on the proposed data set demonstrate that the content of the remote sensing image can be completely described by generating language descriptions. The data set is available at https://github.com/201528014227051/RSICD_optimal