We present a reformulation of the regression and classification, which aims to validate the result of a machine learning algorithm. Our reformulation simplifies the original problem and validates the result of the machine learning algorithm using the training data. Since the validation of machine learning algorithms must always be explainable, we perform our experiments with the kNN algorithm as well as with an algorithm based on conditional probabilities, which is proposed in this work. For the evaluation of our approach, three publicly available data sets were used and three classification and two regression problems were evaluated. The presented algorithm based on conditional probabilities is also online capable and requires only a fraction of memory compared to the kNN algorithm.
The focus of modern biomedical studies has gradually shifted to explanation and estimation of joint effects of high dimensional predictors on disease risks. Quantifying uncertainty in these estimates may provide valuable insight into prevention strategies or treatment decisions for both patients and physicians. High dimensional inference, including confidence intervals and hypothesis testing, has sparked much interest. While much work has been done in the linear regression setting, there is lack of literature on inference for high dimensional generalized linear models. We propose a novel and computationally feasible method, which accommodates a variety of outcome types, including normal, binomial, and Poisson data. We use a "splitting and smoothing" approach, which splits samples into two parts, performs variable selection using one part and conducts partial regression with the other part. Averaging the estimates over multiple random splits, we obtain the smoothed estimates, which are numerically stable. We show that the estimates are consistent, asymptotically normal, and construct confidence intervals with proper coverage probabilities for all predictors. We examine the finite sample performance of our method by comparing it with the existing methods and applying it to analyze a lung cancer cohort study.
We study the problem of learning mixtures of low-rank models, i.e. reconstructing multiple low-rank matrices from unlabelled linear measurements of each. This problem enriches two widely studied settings -- low-rank matrix sensing and mixed linear regression -- by bringing latent variables (i.e. unknown labels) and structural priors (i.e. low-rank structures) into consideration. To cope with the non-convexity issues arising from unlabelled heterogeneous data and low-complexity structure, we develop a three-stage meta-algorithm that is guaranteed to recover the unknown matrices with near-optimal sample and computational complexities under Gaussian designs. In addition, the proposed algorithm is provably stable against random noise. We complement the theoretical studies with empirical evidence that confirms the efficacy of our algorithm.
Due to high annotation costs, making the best use of existing human-created training data is an important research direction. We, therefore, carry out a systematic evaluation of transferability of BERT-based neural ranking models across five English datasets. Previous studies focused primarily on zero-shot and few-shot transfer from a large dataset to a dataset with a small number of queries. In contrast, each of our collections has a substantial number of queries, which enables a full-shot evaluation mode and improves reliability of our results. Furthermore, since source datasets licences often prohibit commercial use, we compare transfer learning to training on pseudo-labels generated by a BM25 scorer. We find that training on pseudo-labels -- possibly with subsequent fine-tuning using a modest number of annotated queries -- can produce a competitive or better model compared to transfer learning. However, there is a need to improve the stability and/or effectiveness of the few-shot training, which, in some cases, can degrade performance of a pretrained model.
This paper focuses on the expected difference in borrower's repayment when there is a change in the lender's credit decisions. Classical estimators overlook the confounding effects and hence the estimation error can be magnificent. As such, we propose another approach to construct the estimators such that the error can be greatly reduced. The proposed estimators are shown to be unbiased, consistent, and robust through a combination of theoretical analysis and numerical testing. Moreover, we compare the power of estimating the causal quantities between the classical estimators and the proposed estimators. The comparison is tested across a wide range of models, including linear regression models, tree-based models, and neural network-based models, under different simulated datasets that exhibit different levels of causality, different degrees of nonlinearity, and different distributional properties. Most importantly, we apply our approaches to a large observational dataset provided by a global technology firm that operates in both the e-commerce and the lending business. We find that the relative reduction of estimation error is strikingly substantial if the causal effects are accounted for correctly.
Predictions obtained by, e.g., artificial neural networks have a high accuracy but humans often perceive the models as black boxes. Insights about the decision making are mostly opaque for humans. Particularly understanding the decision making in highly sensitive areas such as healthcare or fifinance, is of paramount importance. The decision-making behind the black boxes requires it to be more transparent, accountable, and understandable for humans. This survey paper provides essential definitions, an overview of the different principles and methodologies of explainable Supervised Machine Learning (SML). We conduct a state-of-the-art survey that reviews past and recent explainable SML approaches and classifies them according to the introduced definitions. Finally, we illustrate principles by means of an explanatory case study and discuss important future directions.
Methods proposed in the literature towards continual deep learning typically operate in a task-based sequential learning setup. A sequence of tasks is learned, one at a time, with all data of current task available but not of previous or future tasks. Task boundaries and identities are known at all times. This setup, however, is rarely encountered in practical applications. Therefore we investigate how to transform continual learning to an online setup. We develop a system that keeps on learning over time in a streaming fashion, with data distributions gradually changing and without the notion of separate tasks. To this end, we build on the work on Memory Aware Synapses, and show how this method can be made online by providing a protocol to decide i) when to update the importance weights, ii) which data to use to update them, and iii) how to accumulate the importance weights at each update step. Experimental results show the validity of the approach in the context of two applications: (self-)supervised learning of a face recognition model by watching soap series and learning a robot to avoid collisions.
This paper addresses the problem of formally verifying desirable properties of neural networks, i.e., obtaining provable guarantees that neural networks satisfy specifications relating their inputs and outputs (robustness to bounded norm adversarial perturbations, for example). Most previous work on this topic was limited in its applicability by the size of the network, network architecture and the complexity of properties to be verified. In contrast, our framework applies to a general class of activation functions and specifications on neural network inputs and outputs. We formulate verification as an optimization problem (seeking to find the largest violation of the specification) and solve a Lagrangian relaxation of the optimization problem to obtain an upper bound on the worst case violation of the specification being verified. Our approach is anytime i.e. it can be stopped at any time and a valid bound on the maximum violation can be obtained. We develop specialized verification algorithms with provable tightness guarantees under special assumptions and demonstrate the practical significance of our general verification approach on a variety of verification tasks.
Most existing works in visual question answering (VQA) are dedicated to improving the accuracy of predicted answers, while disregarding the explanations. We argue that the explanation for an answer is of the same or even more importance compared with the answer itself, since it makes the question and answering process more understandable and traceable. To this end, we propose a new task of VQA-E (VQA with Explanation), where the computational models are required to generate an explanation with the predicted answer. We first construct a new dataset, and then frame the VQA-E problem in a multi-task learning architecture. Our VQA-E dataset is automatically derived from the VQA v2 dataset by intelligently exploiting the available captions. We have conducted a user study to validate the quality of explanations synthesized by our method. We quantitatively show that the additional supervision from explanations can not only produce insightful textual sentences to justify the answers, but also improve the performance of answer prediction. Our model outperforms the state-of-the-art methods by a clear margin on the VQA v2 dataset.
In multi-task learning, a learner is given a collection of prediction tasks and needs to solve all of them. In contrast to previous work, which required that annotated training data is available for all tasks, we consider a new setting, in which for some tasks, potentially most of them, only unlabeled training data is provided. Consequently, to solve all tasks, information must be transferred between tasks with labels and tasks without labels. Focusing on an instance-based transfer method we analyze two variants of this setting: when the set of labeled tasks is fixed, and when it can be actively selected by the learner. We state and prove a generalization bound that covers both scenarios and derive from it an algorithm for making the choice of labeled tasks (in the active case) and for transferring information between the tasks in a principled way. We also illustrate the effectiveness of the algorithm by experiments on synthetic and real data.
During recent years, active learning has evolved into a popular paradigm for utilizing user's feedback to improve accuracy of learning algorithms. Active learning works by selecting the most informative sample among unlabeled data and querying the label of that point from user. Many different methods such as uncertainty sampling and minimum risk sampling have been utilized to select the most informative sample in active learning. Although many active learning algorithms have been proposed so far, most of them work with binary or multi-class classification problems and therefore can not be applied to problems in which only samples from one class as well as a set of unlabeled data are available. Such problems arise in many real-world situations and are known as the problem of learning from positive and unlabeled data. In this paper we propose an active learning algorithm that can work when only samples of one class as well as a set of unlabelled data are available. Our method works by separately estimating probability desnity of positive and unlabeled points and then computing expected value of informativeness to get rid of a hyper-parameter and have a better measure of informativeness./ Experiments and empirical analysis show promising results compared to other similar methods.