Metric learning learns a metric function from training data to calculate the similarity or distance between samples. From the perspective of feature learning, metric learning essentially learns a new feature space by feature transformation (e.g., Mahalanobis distance metric). However, traditional metric learning algorithms are shallow, which just learn one metric space (feature transformation). Can we further learn a better metric space from the learnt metric space? In other words, can we learn metric progressively and nonlinearly like deep learning by just using the existing metric learning algorithms? To this end, we present a hierarchical metric learning scheme and implement an online deep metric learning framework, namely ODML. Specifically, we take one online metric learning algorithm as a metric layer, followed by a nonlinear layer (i.e., ReLU), and then stack these layers modelled after the deep learning. The proposed ODML enjoys some nice properties, indeed can learn metric progressively and performs superiorly on some datasets. Various experiments with different settings have been conducted to verify these properties of the proposed ODML.

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度量学习的目的为了衡量样本之间的相近程度,而这也正是模式识别的核心问题之一。大量的机器学习方法,比如K近邻、支持向量机、径向基函数网络等分类方法以及K-means聚类方法,还有一些基于图的方法,其性能好坏都主要有样本之间的相似度量方法的选择决定。 度量学习通常的目标是使同类样本之间的距离尽可能缩小,不同类样本之间的距离尽可能放大。

This paper presents a hardness-aware deep metric learning (HDML) framework. Most previous deep metric learning methods employ the hard negative mining strategy to alleviate the lack of informative samples for training. However, this mining strategy only utilizes a subset of training data, which may not be enough to characterize the global geometry of the embedding space comprehensively. To address this problem, we perform linear interpolation on embeddings to adaptively manipulate their hard levels and generate corresponding label-preserving synthetics for recycled training, so that information buried in all samples can be fully exploited and the metric is always challenged with proper difficulty. Our method achieves very competitive performance on the widely used CUB-200-2011, Cars196, and Stanford Online Products datasets.

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Few-shot Learning aims to learn classifiers for new classes with only a few training examples per class. Existing meta-learning or metric-learning based few-shot learning approaches are limited in handling diverse domains with various number of labels. The meta-learning approaches train a meta learner to predict weights of homogeneous-structured task-specific networks, requiring a uniform number of classes across tasks. The metric-learning approaches learn one task-invariant metric for all the tasks, and they fail if the tasks diverge. We propose to deal with these limitations with meta metric learning. Our meta metric learning approach consists of task-specific learners, that exploit metric learning to handle flexible labels, and a meta learner, that discovers good parameters and gradient decent to specify the metrics in task-specific learners. Thus the proposed model is able to handle unbalanced classes as well as to generate task-specific metrics. We test our approach in the `$k$-shot $N$-way' few-shot learning setting used in previous work and new realistic few-shot setting with diverse multi-domain tasks and flexible label numbers. Experiments show that our approach attains superior performances in both settings.

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Learning embedding functions, which map semantically related inputs to nearby locations in a feature space supports a variety of classification and information retrieval tasks. In this work, we propose a novel, generalizable and fast method to define a family of embedding functions that can be used as an ensemble to give improved results. Each embedding function is learned by randomly bagging the training labels into small subsets. We show experimentally that these embedding ensembles create effective embedding functions. The ensemble output defines a metric space that improves state of the art performance for image retrieval on CUB-200-2011, Cars-196, In-Shop Clothes Retrieval and VehicleID.

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With the development of deep learning, Deep Metric Learning (DML) has achieved great improvements in face recognition. Specifically, the widely used softmax loss in the training process often bring large intra-class variations, and feature normalization is only exploited in the testing process to compute the pair similarities. To bridge the gap, we impose the intra-class cosine similarity between the features and weight vectors in softmax loss larger than a margin in the training step, and extend it from four aspects. First, we explore the effect of a hard sample mining strategy. To alleviate the human labor of adjusting the margin hyper-parameter, a self-adaptive margin updating strategy is proposed. Then, a normalized version is given to take full advantage of the cosine similarity constraint. Furthermore, we enhance the former constraint to force the intra-class cosine similarity larger than the mean inter-class cosine similarity with a margin in the exponential feature projection space. Extensive experiments on Labeled Face in the Wild (LFW), Youtube Faces (YTF) and IARPA Janus Benchmark A (IJB-A) datasets demonstrate that the proposed methods outperform the mainstream DML methods and approach the state-of-the-art performance.

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Deep metric learning has been demonstrated to be highly effective in learning semantic representation and encoding information that can be used to measure data similarity, by relying on the embedding learned from metric learning. At the same time, variational autoencoder (VAE) has widely been used to approximate inference and proved to have a good performance for directed probabilistic models. However, for traditional VAE, the data label or feature information are intractable. Similarly, traditional representation learning approaches fail to represent many salient aspects of the data. In this project, we propose a novel integrated framework to learn latent embedding in VAE by incorporating deep metric learning. The features are learned by optimizing a triplet loss on the mean vectors of VAE in conjunction with standard evidence lower bound (ELBO) of VAE. This approach, which we call Triplet based Variational Autoencoder (TVAE), allows us to capture more fine-grained information in the latent embedding. Our model is tested on MNIST data set and achieves a high triplet accuracy of 95.60% while the traditional VAE (Kingma & Welling, 2013) achieves triplet accuracy of 75.08%.

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Recently, ensemble has been applied to deep metric learning to yield state-of-the-art results. Deep metric learning aims to learn deep neural networks for feature embeddings, distances of which satisfy given constraint. In deep metric learning, ensemble takes average of distances learned by multiple learners. As one important aspect of ensemble, the learners should be diverse in their feature embeddings. To this end, we propose an attention-based ensemble, which uses multiple attention masks, so that each learner can attend to different parts of the object. We also propose a divergence loss, which encourages diversity among the learners. The proposed method is applied to the standard benchmarks of deep metric learning and experimental results show that it outperforms the state-of-the-art methods by a significant margin on image retrieval tasks.

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Clustering and classification critically rely on distance metrics that provide meaningful comparisons between data points. We present mixed-integer optimization approaches to find optimal distance metrics that generalize the Mahalanobis metric extensively studied in the literature. Additionally, we generalize and improve upon leading methods by removing reliance on pre-designated "target neighbors," "triplets," and "similarity pairs." Another salient feature of our method is its ability to enable active learning by recommending precise regions to sample after an optimal metric is computed to improve classification performance. This targeted acquisition can significantly reduce computational burden by ensuring training data completeness, representativeness, and economy. We demonstrate classification and computational performance of the algorithms through several simple and intuitive examples, followed by results on real image and medical datasets.

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In recent years, person re-identification (re-id) catches great attention in both computer vision community and industry. In this paper, we propose a new framework for person re-identification with a triplet-based deep similarity learning using convolutional neural networks (CNNs). The network is trained with triplet input: two of them have the same class labels and the other one is different. It aims to learn the deep feature representation, with which the distance within the same class is decreased, while the distance between the different classes is increased as much as possible. Moreover, we trained the model jointly on six different datasets, which differs from common practice - one model is just trained on one dataset and tested also on the same one. However, the enormous number of possible triplet data among the large number of training samples makes the training impossible. To address this challenge, a double-sampling scheme is proposed to generate triplets of images as effective as possible. The proposed framework is evaluated on several benchmark datasets. The experimental results show that, our method is effective for the task of person re-identification and it is comparable or even outperforms the state-of-the-art methods.

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Learning similarity functions between image pairs with deep neural networks yields highly correlated activations of embeddings. In this work, we show how to improve the robustness of such embeddings by exploiting the independence within ensembles. To this end, we divide the last embedding layer of a deep network into an embedding ensemble and formulate training this ensemble as an online gradient boosting problem. Each learner receives a reweighted training sample from the previous learners. Further, we propose two loss functions which increase the diversity in our ensemble. These loss functions can be applied either for weight initialization or during training. Together, our contributions leverage large embedding sizes more effectively by significantly reducing correlation of the embedding and consequently increase retrieval accuracy of the embedding. Our method works with any differentiable loss function and does not introduce any additional parameters during test time. We evaluate our metric learning method on image retrieval tasks and show that it improves over state-of-the-art methods on the CUB 200-2011, Cars-196, Stanford Online Products, In-Shop Clothes Retrieval and VehicleID datasets.

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This paper proposes a new neural architecture for collaborative ranking with implicit feedback. Our model, LRML (\textit{Latent Relational Metric Learning}) is a novel metric learning approach for recommendation. More specifically, instead of simple push-pull mechanisms between user and item pairs, we propose to learn latent relations that describe each user item interaction. This helps to alleviate the potential geometric inflexibility of existing metric learing approaches. This enables not only better performance but also a greater extent of modeling capability, allowing our model to scale to a larger number of interactions. In order to do so, we employ a augmented memory module and learn to attend over these memory blocks to construct latent relations. The memory-based attention module is controlled by the user-item interaction, making the learned relation vector specific to each user-item pair. Hence, this can be interpreted as learning an exclusive and optimal relational translation for each user-item interaction. The proposed architecture demonstrates the state-of-the-art performance across multiple recommendation benchmarks. LRML outperforms other metric learning models by $6\%-7.5\%$ in terms of Hits@10 and nDCG@10 on large datasets such as Netflix and MovieLens20M. Moreover, qualitative studies also demonstrate evidence that our proposed model is able to infer and encode explicit sentiment, temporal and attribute information despite being only trained on implicit feedback. As such, this ascertains the ability of LRML to uncover hidden relational structure within implicit datasets.

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