This paper presents TS2Vec, a universal framework for learning representations of time series in an arbitrary semantic level. Unlike existing methods, TS2Vec performs contrastive learning in a hierarchical way over augmented context views, which enables a robust contextual representation for each timestamp. Furthermore, to obtain the representation of an arbitrary sub-sequence in the time series, we can apply a simple aggregation over the representations of corresponding timestamps. We conduct extensive experiments on time series classification tasks to evaluate the quality of time series representations. As a result, TS2Vec achieves significant improvement over existing SOTAs of unsupervised time series representation on 125 UCR datasets and 29 UEA datasets. The learned timestamp-level representations also achieve superior results in time series forecasting and anomaly detection tasks. A linear regression trained on top of the learned representations outperforms previous SOTAs of time series forecasting. Furthermore, we present a simple way to apply the learned representations for unsupervised anomaly detection, which establishes SOTA results in the literature. The source code is publicly available at https://github.com/yuezhihan/ts2vec.
Molecular graph representation learning is a fundamental problem in modern drug and material discovery. Molecular graphs are typically modeled by their 2D topological structures, but it has been recently discovered that 3D geometric information plays a more vital role in predicting molecular functionalities. However, the lack of 3D information in real-world scenarios has significantly impeded the learning of geometric graph representation. To cope with this challenge, we propose the Graph Multi-View Pre-training (GraphMVP) framework where self-supervised learning (SSL) is performed by leveraging the correspondence and consistency between 2D topological structures and 3D geometric views. GraphMVP effectively learns a 2D molecular graph encoder that is enhanced by richer and more discriminative 3D geometry. We further provide theoretical insights to justify the effectiveness of GraphMVP. Finally, comprehensive experiments show that GraphMVP can consistently outperform existing graph SSL methods.
This paper studies unsupervised/self-supervised whole-graph representation learning, which is critical in many tasks such as molecule properties prediction in drug and material discovery. Existing methods mainly focus on preserving the local similarity structure between different graph instances but fail to discover the global semantic structure of the entire data set. In this paper, we propose a unified framework called Local-instance and Global-semantic Learning (GraphLoG) for self-supervised whole-graph representation learning. Specifically, besides preserving the local similarities, GraphLoG introduces the hierarchical prototypes to capture the global semantic clusters. An efficient online expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm is further developed for learning the model. We evaluate GraphLoG by pre-training it on massive unlabeled graphs followed by fine-tuning on downstream tasks. Extensive experiments on both chemical and biological benchmark data sets demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.
The usage of smartphone-collected respiratory sound, trained with deep learning models, for detecting and classifying COVID-19 becomes popular recently. It removes the need for in-person testing procedures especially for rural regions where related medical supplies, experienced workers, and equipment are limited. However, existing sound-based diagnostic approaches are trained in a fully supervised manner, which requires large scale well-labelled data. It is critical to discover new methods to leverage unlabelled respiratory data, which can be obtained more easily. In this paper, we propose a novel self-supervised learning enabled framework for COVID-19 cough classification. A contrastive pre-training phase is introduced to train a Transformer-based feature encoder with unlabelled data. Specifically, we design a random masking mechanism to learn robust representations of respiratory sounds. The pre-trained feature encoder is then fine-tuned in the downstream phase to perform cough classification. In addition, different ensembles with varied random masking rates are also explored in the downstream phase. Through extensive evaluations, we demonstrate that the proposed contrastive pre-training, the random masking mechanism, and the ensemble architecture contribute to improving cough classification performance.
Most of the current self-supervised representation learning (SSL) methods are based on the contrastive loss and the instance-discrimination task, where augmented versions of the same image instance ("positives") are contrasted with instances extracted from other images ("negatives"). For the learning to be effective, many negatives should be compared with a positive pair, which is computationally demanding. In this paper, we propose a different direction and a new loss function for SSL, which is based on the whitening of the latent-space features. The whitening operation has a "scattering" effect on the batch samples, avoiding degenerate solutions where all the sample representations collapse to a single point. Our solution does not require asymmetric networks and it is conceptually simple. Moreover, since negatives are not needed, we can extract multiple positive pairs from the same image instance. The source code of the method and of all the experiments is available at: https://github.com/htdt/self-supervised.
We present a large-scale study on unsupervised spatiotemporal representation learning from videos. With a unified perspective on four recent image-based frameworks, we study a simple objective that can easily generalize all these methods to space-time. Our objective encourages temporally-persistent features in the same video, and in spite of its simplicity, it works surprisingly well across: (i) different unsupervised frameworks, (ii) pre-training datasets, (iii) downstream datasets, and (iv) backbone architectures. We draw a series of intriguing observations from this study, e.g., we discover that encouraging long-spanned persistency can be effective even if the timespan is 60 seconds. In addition to state-of-the-art results in multiple benchmarks, we report a few promising cases in which unsupervised pre-training can outperform its supervised counterpart. Code is made available at https://github.com/facebookresearch/SlowFast
Few-shot classification aims to recognize unseen classes when presented with only a small number of samples. We consider the problem of multi-domain few-shot image classification, where unseen classes and examples come from diverse data sources. This problem has seen growing interest and has inspired the development of benchmarks such as Meta-Dataset. A key challenge in this multi-domain setting is to effectively integrate the feature representations from the diverse set of training domains. Here, we propose a Universal Representation Transformer (URT) layer, that meta-learns to leverage universal features for few-shot classification by dynamically re-weighting and composing the most appropriate domain-specific representations. In experiments, we show that URT sets a new state-of-the-art result on Meta-Dataset. Specifically, it achieves top-performance on the highest number of data sources compared to competing methods. We analyze variants of URT and present a visualization of the attention score heatmaps that sheds light on how the model performs cross-domain generalization. Our code is available at https://github.com/liulu112601/URT.
We introduce a self-supervised approach for learning node and graph level representations by contrasting structural views of graphs. We show that unlike visual representation learning, increasing the number of views to more than two or contrasting multi-scale encodings do not improve performance, and the best performance is achieved by contrasting encodings from first-order neighbors and a graph diffusion. We achieve new state-of-the-art results in self-supervised learning on 8 out of 8 node and graph classification benchmarks under the linear evaluation protocol. For example, on Cora (node) and Reddit-Binary (graph) classification benchmarks, we achieve 86.8% and 84.5% accuracy, which are 5.5% and 2.4% relative improvements over previous state-of-the-art. When compared to supervised baselines, our approach outperforms them in 4 out of 8 benchmarks. Source code is released at: https://github.com/kavehhassani/mvgrl
This paper addresses the difficulty of forecasting multiple financial time series (TS) conjointly using deep neural networks (DNN). We investigate whether DNN-based models could forecast these TS more efficiently by learning their representation directly. To this end, we make use of the dynamic factor graph (DFG) from that we enhance by proposing a novel variable-length attention-based mechanism to render it memory-augmented. Using this mechanism, we propose an unsupervised DNN architecture for multivariate TS forecasting that allows to learn and take advantage of the relationships between these TS. We test our model on two datasets covering 19 years of investment funds activities. Our experimental results show that our proposed approach outperforms significantly typical DNN-based and statistical models at forecasting their 21-day price trajectory.
This paper presents SimCLR: a simple framework for contrastive learning of visual representations. We simplify recently proposed contrastive self-supervised learning algorithms without requiring specialized architectures or a memory bank. In order to understand what enables the contrastive prediction tasks to learn useful representations, we systematically study the major components of our framework. We show that (1) composition of data augmentations plays a critical role in defining effective predictive tasks, (2) introducing a learnable nonlinear transformation between the representation and the contrastive loss substantially improves the quality of the learned representations, and (3) contrastive learning benefits from larger batch sizes and more training steps compared to supervised learning. By combining these findings, we are able to considerably outperform previous methods for self-supervised and semi-supervised learning on ImageNet. A linear classifier trained on self-supervised representations learned by SimCLR achieves 76.5% top-1 accuracy, which is a 7% relative improvement over previous state-of-the-art, matching the performance of a supervised ResNet-50. When fine-tuned on only 1% of the labels, we achieve 85.8% top-5 accuracy, outperforming AlexNet with 100X fewer labels.
Entity alignment is a viable means for integrating heterogeneous knowledge among different knowledge graphs (KGs). Recent developments in the field often take an embedding-based approach to model the structural information of KGs so that entity alignment can be easily performed in the embedding space. However, most existing works do not explicitly utilize useful relation representations to assist in entity alignment, which, as we will show in the paper, is a simple yet effective way for improving entity alignment. This paper presents a novel joint learning framework for entity alignment. At the core of our approach is a Graph Convolutional Network (GCN) based framework for learning both entity and relation representations. Rather than relying on pre-aligned relation seeds to learn relation representations, we first approximate them using entity embeddings learned by the GCN. We then incorporate the relation approximation into entities to iteratively learn better representations for both. Experiments performed on three real-world cross-lingual datasets show that our approach substantially outperforms state-of-the-art entity alignment methods.