Knowledge graphs have emerged as expressive data structures for Web data. Knowledge graph potential and the demand for ecosystems to facilitate their creation, curation, and understanding, is testified in diverse domains, e.g., biomedicine. The Shapes Constraint Language (SHACL) is the W3C recommendation language for integrity constraints over RDF knowledge graphs. Enabling quality assements of knowledge graphs, SHACL is rapidly gaining attention in real-world scenarios. SHACL models integrity constraints as a network of shapes, where a shape contains the constraints to be fullfiled by the same entities. The validation of a SHACL shape schema can face the issue of tractability during validation. To facilitate full adoption, efficient computational methods are required. We present Trav-SHACL, a SHACL engine capable of planning the traversal and execution of a shape schema in a way that invalid entities are detected early and needless validations are minimized. Trav-SHACL reorders the shapes in a shape schema for efficient validation and rewrites target and constraint queries for the fast detection of invalid entities. Trav-SHACL is empirically evaluated on 27 testbeds executed against knowledge graphs of up to 34M triples. Our experimental results suggest that Trav-SHACL exhibits high performance gradually and reduces validation time by a factor of up to 28.93 compared to the state of the art.

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Integration:Integration, the VLSI Journal。 Explanation:集成,VLSI杂志。 Publisher:Elsevier。 SIT:http://dblp.uni-trier.de/db/journals/integration/

Training of large scale models on distributed clusters is a critical component of the machine learning pipeline. However, this training can easily be made to fail if some workers behave in an adversarial (Byzantine) fashion whereby they return arbitrary results to the parameter server (PS). A plethora of existing papers consider a variety of attack models and propose robust aggregation and/or computational redundancy to alleviate the effects of these attacks. In this work we consider an omniscient attack model where the adversary has full knowledge about the gradient computation assignments of the workers and can choose to attack (up to) any q out of K worker nodes to induce maximal damage. Our redundancy-based method ByzShield leverages the properties of bipartite expander graphs for the assignment of tasks to workers; this helps to effectively mitigate the effect of the Byzantine behavior. Specifically, we demonstrate an upper bound on the worst case fraction of corrupted gradients based on the eigenvalues of our constructions which are based on mutually orthogonal Latin squares and Ramanujan graphs. Our numerical experiments indicate over a 36% reduction on average in the fraction of corrupted gradients compared to the state of the art. Likewise, our experiments on training followed by image classification on the CIFAR-10 dataset show that ByzShield has on average a 20% advantage in accuracy under the most sophisticated attacks. ByzShield also tolerates a much larger fraction of adversarial nodes compared to prior work.

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This paper presents LIRA-V, a lightweight system for performing remote attestation between constrained devices using the RISC-V architecture. We propose using read-only memory and the RISC-V Physical Memory Protection (PMP) primitive to build a trust anchor for remote attestation and secure channel creation. Moreover, we propose a bi-directional attestation protocol for trusted device-to-device communication, which is subjected to formal symbolic verification using Scyther. We present the design, implementation and evaluation of LIRA-V using an off-the-shelf {RISC-V} microcontroller and present performance results to demonstrate its suitability. To our knowledge, we present the first remote attestation mechanism suitable for constrained RISC-V devices, with applications to the Internet of Things (IoT) and Cyber Physical Systems (CPS).

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Most existing set encoding algorithms operate under the assumption that all the elements of the set are accessible during training and inference. Additionally, it is assumed that there are enough computational resources available for concurrently processing sets of large cardinality. However, both assumptions fail when the cardinality of the set is prohibitively large such that we cannot even load the set into memory. In more extreme cases, the set size could be potentially unlimited, and the elements of the set could be given in a streaming manner, where the model receives subsets of the full set data at irregular intervals. To tackle such practical challenges in large-scale set encoding, we go beyond the usual constraints of invariance and equivariance and introduce a new property termed Mini-Batch Consistency that is required for large scale mini-batch set encoding. We present a scalable and efficient set encoding mechanism that is amenable to mini-batch processing with respect to set elements and capable of updating set representations as more data arrives. The proposed method respects the required symmetries of invariance and equivariance as well as being Mini-Batch Consistent for random partitions of the input set. We perform extensive experiments and show that our method is computationally efficient and results in rich set encoding representations for set-structured data.

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We consider answering queries on data available through access methods, that provide lookup access to the tuples matching a given binding. Such interfaces are common on the Web; further, they often have bounds on how many results they can return, e.g., because of pagination or rate limits. We thus study result-bounded methods, which may return only a limited number of tuples. We study how to decide if a query is answerable using result-bounded methods, i.e., how to compute a plan that returns all answers to the query using the methods, assuming that the underlying data satisfies some integrity constraints. We first show how to reduce answerability to a query containment problem with constraints. Second, we show "schema simplification" theorems describing when and how result-bounded services can be used. Finally, we use these theorems to give decidability and complexity results about answerability for common constraint classes.

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Recent work pre-training Transformers with self-supervised objectives on large text corpora has shown great success when fine-tuned on downstream NLP tasks including text summarization. However, pre-training objectives tailored for abstractive text summarization have not been explored. Furthermore there is a lack of systematic evaluation across diverse domains. In this work, we propose pre-training large Transformer-based encoder-decoder models on massive text corpora with a new self-supervised objective. In PEGASUS, important sentences are removed/masked from an input document and are generated together as one output sequence from the remaining sentences, similar to an extractive summary. We evaluated our best PEGASUS model on 12 downstream summarization tasks spanning news, science, stories, instructions, emails, patents, and legislative bills. Experiments demonstrate it achieves state-of-the-art performance on all 12 downstream datasets measured by ROUGE scores. Our model also shows surprising performance on low-resource summarization, surpassing previous state-of-the-art results on 6 datasets with only 1000 examples. Finally we validated our results using human evaluation and show that our model summaries achieve human performance on multiple datasets.

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In order to facilitate the accesses of general users to knowledge graphs, an increasing effort is being exerted to construct graph-structured queries of given natural language questions. At the core of the construction is to deduce the structure of the target query and determine the vertices/edges which constitute the query. Existing query construction methods rely on question understanding and conventional graph-based algorithms which lead to inefficient and degraded performances facing complex natural language questions over knowledge graphs with large scales. In this paper, we focus on this problem and propose a novel framework standing on recent knowledge graph embedding techniques. Our framework first encodes the underlying knowledge graph into a low-dimensional embedding space by leveraging generalized local knowledge graphs. Given a natural language question, the learned embedding representations of the knowledge graph are utilized to compute the query structure and assemble vertices/edges into the target query. Extensive experiments were conducted on the benchmark dataset, and the results demonstrate that our framework outperforms state-of-the-art baseline models regarding effectiveness and efficiency.

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We present a new approach for pretraining a bi-directional transformer model that provides significant performance gains across a variety of language understanding problems. Our model solves a cloze-style word reconstruction task, where each word is ablated and must be predicted given the rest of the text. Experiments demonstrate large performance gains on GLUE and new state of the art results on NER as well as constituency parsing benchmarks, consistent with the concurrently introduced BERT model. We also present a detailed analysis of a number of factors that contribute to effective pretraining, including data domain and size, model capacity, and variations on the cloze objective.

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While large-scale knowledge graphs provide vast amounts of structured facts about entities, a short textual description can often be useful to succinctly characterize an entity and its type. Unfortunately, many knowledge graph entities lack such textual descriptions. In this paper, we introduce a dynamic memory-based network that generates a short open vocabulary description of an entity by jointly leveraging induced fact embeddings as well as the dynamic context of the generated sequence of words. We demonstrate the ability of our architecture to discern relevant information for more accurate generation of type description by pitting the system against several strong baselines.

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Sentence simplification aims to simplify the content and structure of complex sentences, and thus make them easier to interpret for human readers, and easier to process for downstream NLP applications. Recent advances in neural machine translation have paved the way for novel approaches to the task. In this paper, we adapt an architecture with augmented memory capacities called Neural Semantic Encoders (Munkhdalai and Yu, 2017) for sentence simplification. Our experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach on different simplification datasets, both in terms of automatic evaluation measures and human judgments.

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Machine Learning has been the quintessential solution for many AI problems, but learning is still heavily dependent on the specific training data. Some learning models can be incorporated with a prior knowledge in the Bayesian set up, but these learning models do not have the ability to access any organised world knowledge on demand. In this work, we propose to enhance learning models with world knowledge in the form of Knowledge Graph (KG) fact triples for Natural Language Processing (NLP) tasks. Our aim is to develop a deep learning model that can extract relevant prior support facts from knowledge graphs depending on the task using attention mechanism. We introduce a convolution-based model for learning representations of knowledge graph entity and relation clusters in order to reduce the attention space. We show that the proposed method is highly scalable to the amount of prior information that has to be processed and can be applied to any generic NLP task. Using this method we show significant improvement in performance for text classification with News20, DBPedia datasets and natural language inference with Stanford Natural Language Inference (SNLI) dataset. We also demonstrate that a deep learning model can be trained well with substantially less amount of labeled training data, when it has access to organised world knowledge in the form of knowledge graph.

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