** Lots of learning tasks require dealing with graph data which contains rich relation information among elements. Modeling physics system, learning molecular fingerprints, predicting protein interface, and classifying diseases require that a model to learn from graph inputs. In other domains such as learning from non-structural data like texts and images, reasoning on extracted structures, like the dependency tree of sentences and the scene graph of images, is an important research topic which also needs graph reasoning models. Graph neural networks (GNNs) are connectionist models that capture the dependence of graphs via message passing between the nodes of graphs. Unlike standard neural networks, graph neural networks retain a state that can represent information from its neighborhood with an arbitrary depth. Although the primitive graph neural networks have been found difficult to train for a fixed point, recent advances in network architectures, optimization techniques, and parallel computation have enabled successful learning with them. In recent years, systems based on graph convolutional network (GCN) and gated graph neural network (GGNN) have demonstrated ground-breaking performance on many tasks mentioned above. In this survey, we provide a detailed review over existing graph neural network models, systematically categorize the applications, and propose four open problems for future research. **

神经网络（Neural Networks）是世界上三个最古老的神经建模学会的档案期刊:国际神经网络学会(INNS)、欧洲神经网络学会(ENNS)和日本神经网络学会(JNNS)。神经网络提供了一个论坛，以发展和培育一个国际社会的学者和实践者感兴趣的所有方面的神经网络和相关方法的计算智能。神经网络欢迎高质量论文的提交，有助于全面的神经网络研究，从行为和大脑建模，学习算法，通过数学和计算分析，系统的工程和技术应用，大量使用神经网络的概念和技术。这一独特而广泛的范围促进了生物和技术研究之间的思想交流，并有助于促进对生物启发的计算智能感兴趣的跨学科社区的发展。因此，神经网络编委会代表的专家领域包括心理学，神经生物学，计算机科学，工程，数学，物理。该杂志发表文章、信件和评论以及给编辑的信件、社论、时事、软件调查和专利信息。文章发表在五个部分之一:认知科学，神经科学，学习系统，数学和计算分析、工程和应用。
官网地址：http://dblp.uni-trier.de/db/journals/nn/

** Recently, researches have explored the graph neural network (GNN) techniques on text classification, since GNN does well in handling complex structures and preserving global information. However, previous methods based on GNN are mainly faced with the practical problems of fixed corpus level graph structure which do not support online testing and high memory consumption. To tackle the problems, we propose a new GNN based model that builds graphs for each input text with global parameters sharing instead of a single graph for the whole corpus. This method removes the burden of dependence between an individual text and entire corpus which support online testing, but still preserve global information. Besides, we build graphs by much smaller windows in the text, which not only extract more local features but also significantly reduce the edge numbers as well as memory consumption. Experiments show that our model outperforms existing models on several text classification datasets even with consuming less memory. **

** Graph Convolutional Networks (GCNs) have recently become the primary choice for learning from graph-structured data, superseding hash fingerprints in representing chemical compounds. However, GCNs lack the ability to take into account the ordering of node neighbors, even when there is a geometric interpretation of the graph vertices that provides an order based on their spatial positions. To remedy this issue, we propose Geometric Graph Convolutional Network (geo-GCN) which uses spatial features to efficiently learn from graphs that can be naturally located in space. Our contribution is threefold: we propose a GCN-inspired architecture which (i) leverages node positions, (ii) is a proper generalisation of both GCNs and Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs), (iii) benefits from augmentation which further improves the performance and assures invariance with respect to the desired properties. Empirically, geo-GCN outperforms state-of-the-art graph-based methods on image classification and chemical tasks. **

** Learning latent representations of nodes in graphs is an important and ubiquitous task with widespread applications such as link prediction, node classification, and graph visualization. Previous methods on graph representation learning mainly focus on static graphs, however, many real-world graphs are dynamic and evolve over time. In this paper, we present Dynamic Self-Attention Network (DySAT), a novel neural architecture that operates on dynamic graphs and learns node representations that capture both structural properties and temporal evolutionary patterns. Specifically, DySAT computes node representations by jointly employing self-attention layers along two dimensions: structural neighborhood and temporal dynamics. We conduct link prediction experiments on two classes of graphs: communication networks and bipartite rating networks. Our experimental results show that DySAT has a significant performance gain over several different state-of-the-art graph embedding baselines. **

** During the last decade, Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) have become the de facto standard for various Computer Vision and Machine Learning operations. CNNs are feed-forward Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) with alternating convolutional and subsampling layers. Deep 2D CNNs with many hidden layers and millions of parameters have the ability to learn complex objects and patterns providing that they can be trained on a massive size visual database with ground-truth labels. With a proper training, this unique ability makes them the primary tool for various engineering applications for 2D signals such as images and video frames. Yet, this may not be a viable option in numerous applications over 1D signals especially when the training data is scarce or application-specific. To address this issue, 1D CNNs have recently been proposed and immediately achieved the state-of-the-art performance levels in several applications such as personalized biomedical data classification and early diagnosis, structural health monitoring, anomaly detection and identification in power electronics and motor-fault detection. Another major advantage is that a real-time and low-cost hardware implementation is feasible due to the simple and compact configuration of 1D CNNs that perform only 1D convolutions (scalar multiplications and additions). This paper presents a comprehensive review of the general architecture and principals of 1D CNNs along with their major engineering applications, especially focused on the recent progress in this field. Their state-of-the-art performance is highlighted concluding with their unique properties. The benchmark datasets and the principal 1D CNN software used in those applications are also publically shared in a dedicated website. **

** Many real-world problems can be represented as graph-based learning problems. In this paper, we propose a novel framework for learning spatial and attentional convolution neural networks on arbitrary graphs. Different from previous convolutional neural networks on graphs, we first design a motif-matching guided subgraph normalization method to capture neighborhood information. Then we implement subgraph-level self-attentional layers to learn different importances from different subgraphs to solve graph classification problems. Analogous to image-based attentional convolution networks that operate on locally connected and weighted regions of the input, we also extend graph normalization from one-dimensional node sequence to two-dimensional node grid by leveraging motif-matching, and design self-attentional layers without requiring any kinds of cost depending on prior knowledge of the graph structure. Our results on both bioinformatics and social network datasets show that we can significantly improve graph classification benchmarks over traditional graph kernel and existing deep models. **

** The field of natural language processing has seen impressive progress in recent years, with neural network models replacing many of the traditional systems. A plethora of new models have been proposed, many of which are thought to be opaque compared to their feature-rich counterparts. This has led researchers to analyze, interpret, and evaluate neural networks in novel and more fine-grained ways. In this survey paper, we review analysis methods in neural language processing, categorize them according to prominent research trends, highlight existing limitations, and point to potential directions for future work. **

** Graph embedding aims to transfer a graph into vectors to facilitate subsequent graph analytics tasks like link prediction and graph clustering. Most approaches on graph embedding focus on preserving the graph structure or minimizing the reconstruction errors for graph data. They have mostly overlooked the embedding distribution of the latent codes, which unfortunately may lead to inferior representation in many cases. In this paper, we present a novel adversarially regularized framework for graph embedding. By employing the graph convolutional network as an encoder, our framework embeds the topological information and node content into a vector representation, from which a graph decoder is further built to reconstruct the input graph. The adversarial training principle is applied to enforce our latent codes to match a prior Gaussian or Uniform distribution. Based on this framework, we derive two variants of adversarial models, the adversarially regularized graph autoencoder (ARGA) and its variational version, adversarially regularized variational graph autoencoder (ARVGA), to learn the graph embedding effectively. We also exploit other potential variations of ARGA and ARVGA to get a deeper understanding on our designs. Experimental results compared among twelve algorithms for link prediction and twenty algorithms for graph clustering validate our solutions. **

** Deep learning has revolutionized many machine learning tasks in recent years, ranging from image classification and video processing to speech recognition and natural language understanding. The data in these tasks are typically represented in the Euclidean space. However, there is an increasing number of applications where data are generated from non-Euclidean domains and are represented as graphs with complex relationships and interdependency between objects. The complexity of graph data has imposed significant challenges on existing machine learning algorithms. Recently, many studies on extending deep learning approaches for graph data have emerged. In this survey, we provide a comprehensive overview of graph neural networks (GNNs) in data mining and machine learning fields. We propose a new taxonomy to divide the state-of-the-art graph neural networks into different categories. With a focus on graph convolutional networks, we review alternative architectures that have recently been developed; these learning paradigms include graph attention networks, graph autoencoders, graph generative networks, and graph spatial-temporal networks. We further discuss the applications of graph neural networks across various domains and summarize the open source codes and benchmarks of the existing algorithms on different learning tasks. Finally, we propose potential research directions in this fast-growing field. **

** Deep learning has been shown successful in a number of domains, ranging from acoustics, images to natural language processing. However, applying deep learning to the ubiquitous graph data is non-trivial because of the unique characteristics of graphs. Recently, a significant amount of research efforts have been devoted to this area, greatly advancing graph analyzing techniques. In this survey, we comprehensively review different kinds of deep learning methods applied to graphs. We divide existing methods into three main categories: semi-supervised methods including Graph Neural Networks and Graph Convolutional Networks, unsupervised methods including Graph Autoencoders, and recent advancements including Graph Recurrent Neural Networks and Graph Reinforcement Learning. We then provide a comprehensive overview of these methods in a systematic manner following their history of developments. We also analyze the differences of these methods and how to composite different architectures. Finally, we briefly outline their applications and discuss potential future directions. **

** Graphs, which describe pairwise relations between objects, are essential representations of many real-world data such as social networks. In recent years, graph neural networks, which extend the neural network models to graph data, have attracted increasing attention. Graph neural networks have been applied to advance many different graph related tasks such as reasoning dynamics of the physical system, graph classification, and node classification. Most of the existing graph neural network models have been designed for static graphs, while many real-world graphs are inherently dynamic. For example, social networks are naturally evolving as new users joining and new relations being created. Current graph neural network models cannot utilize the dynamic information in dynamic graphs. However, the dynamic information has been proven to enhance the performance of many graph analytical tasks such as community detection and link prediction. Hence, it is necessary to design dedicated graph neural networks for dynamic graphs. In this paper, we propose DGNN, a new {\bf D}ynamic {\bf G}raph {\bf N}eural {\bf N}etwork model, which can model the dynamic information as the graph evolving. In particular, the proposed framework can keep updating node information by capturing the sequential information of edges, the time intervals between edges and information propagation coherently. Experimental results on various dynamic graphs demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed framework. **