推荐系统,是指根据用户的习惯、偏好或兴趣,从不断到来的大规模信息中识别满足用户兴趣的信息的过程。推荐推荐任务中的信息往往称为物品(Item)。根据具体应用背景的不同,这些物品可以是新闻、电影、音乐、广告、商品等各种对象。推荐系统利用电子商务网站向客户提供商品信息和建议,帮助用户决定应该购买什么产品,模拟销售人员帮助客户完成购买过程。个性化推荐是根据用户的兴趣特点和购买行为,向用户推荐用户感兴趣的信息和商品。随着电子商务规模的不断扩大,商品个数和种类快速增长,顾客需要花费大量的时间才能找到自己想买的商品。这种浏览大量无关的信息和产品过程无疑会使淹没在信息过载问题中的消费者不断流失。为了解决这些问题,个性化推荐系统应运而生。个性化推荐系统是建立在海量数据挖掘基础上的一种高级商务智能平台,以帮助电子商务网站为其顾客购物提供完全个性化的决策支持和信息服务。

Many video-on-demand and music streaming services provide the user with a page consisting of several recommendation lists, i.e. widgets or swipeable carousels, each built with a specific criterion (e.g. most recent, TV series, etc.). Finding efficient strategies to select which carousels to display is an active research topic of great industrial interest. In this setting, the overall quality of the recommendations of a new algorithm cannot be assessed by measuring solely its individual recommendation quality. Rather, it should be evaluated in a context where other recommendation lists are already available, to account for how they complement each other. This is not considered by traditional offline evaluation protocols. Hence, we propose an offline evaluation protocol for a carousel setting in which the recommendation quality of a model is measured by how much it improves upon that of an already available set of carousels. We report experiments on publicly available datasets on the movie domain and notice that under a carousel setting the ranking of the algorithms change. In particular, when a SLIM carousel is available, matrix factorization models tend to be preferred, while item-based models are penalized. We also propose to extend ranking metrics to the two-dimensional carousel layout in order to account for a known position bias, i.e. users will not explore the lists sequentially, but rather concentrate on the top-left corner of the screen.

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In the past few years, there has been much work on incorporating fairness requirements into algorithmic rankers, with contributions coming from the data management, algorithms, information retrieval, and recommender systems communities. In this survey we give a systematic overview of this work, offering a broad perspective that connects formalizations and algorithmic approaches across subfields. An important contribution of our work is in developing a common narrative around the value frameworks that motivate specific fairness-enhancing interventions in ranking. This allows us to unify the presentation of mitigation objectives and of algorithmic techniques to help meet those objectives or identify trade-offs.

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Recent years have witnessed the fast development of the emerging topic of Graph Learning based Recommender Systems (GLRS). GLRS employ advanced graph learning approaches to model users' preferences and intentions as well as items' characteristics for recommendations. Differently from other RS approaches, including content-based filtering and collaborative filtering, GLRS are built on graphs where the important objects, e.g., users, items, and attributes, are either explicitly or implicitly connected. With the rapid development of graph learning techniques, exploring and exploiting homogeneous or heterogeneous relations in graphs are a promising direction for building more effective RS. In this paper, we provide a systematic review of GLRS, by discussing how they extract important knowledge from graph-based representations to improve the accuracy, reliability and explainability of the recommendations. First, we characterize and formalize GLRS, and then summarize and categorize the key challenges and main progress in this novel research area. Finally, we share some new research directions in this vibrant area.

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