Many video-on-demand and music streaming services provide the user with a page consisting of several recommendation lists, i.e. widgets or swipeable carousels, each built with a specific criterion (e.g. most recent, TV series, etc.). Finding efficient strategies to select which carousels to display is an active research topic of great industrial interest. In this setting, the overall quality of the recommendations of a new algorithm cannot be assessed by measuring solely its individual recommendation quality. Rather, it should be evaluated in a context where other recommendation lists are already available, to account for how they complement each other. This is not considered by traditional offline evaluation protocols. Hence, we propose an offline evaluation protocol for a carousel setting in which the recommendation quality of a model is measured by how much it improves upon that of an already available set of carousels. We report experiments on publicly available datasets on the movie domain and notice that under a carousel setting the ranking of the algorithms change. In particular, when a SLIM carousel is available, matrix factorization models tend to be preferred, while item-based models are penalized. We also propose to extend ranking metrics to the two-dimensional carousel layout in order to account for a known position bias, i.e. users will not explore the lists sequentially, but rather concentrate on the top-left corner of the screen.
In the past few years, there has been much work on incorporating fairness requirements into algorithmic rankers, with contributions coming from the data management, algorithms, information retrieval, and recommender systems communities. In this survey we give a systematic overview of this work, offering a broad perspective that connects formalizations and algorithmic approaches across subfields. An important contribution of our work is in developing a common narrative around the value frameworks that motivate specific fairness-enhancing interventions in ranking. This allows us to unify the presentation of mitigation objectives and of algorithmic techniques to help meet those objectives or identify trade-offs.
Recent years have witnessed the fast development of the emerging topic of Graph Learning based Recommender Systems (GLRS). GLRS employ advanced graph learning approaches to model users' preferences and intentions as well as items' characteristics for recommendations. Differently from other RS approaches, including content-based filtering and collaborative filtering, GLRS are built on graphs where the important objects, e.g., users, items, and attributes, are either explicitly or implicitly connected. With the rapid development of graph learning techniques, exploring and exploiting homogeneous or heterogeneous relations in graphs are a promising direction for building more effective RS. In this paper, we provide a systematic review of GLRS, by discussing how they extract important knowledge from graph-based representations to improve the accuracy, reliability and explainability of the recommendations. First, we characterize and formalize GLRS, and then summarize and categorize the key challenges and main progress in this novel research area. Finally, we share some new research directions in this vibrant area.