神经结构学习（NSL）是由谷歌推出的一套开源框架，负责利用结构化信号训练深度神经网络。它能够实现神经图学习，使得开发人员得以利用图表训练神经网络。这些图表可以来自多种来源，例如知识图谱、医疗记录、基因组数据或者多模关系（例如图像 - 文本对）等。NSL 还可延伸至对抗学习领域，其中各输入实例间的结构以对抗性扰动方式动态构建而成。
题目： Convolutional Kernel Networks for Graph-Structured Data
Reza Bosagh Zadeh是Matroid的创始人兼首席执行官，也是斯坦福大学的兼职教授。他的工作重点是机器学习、分布式计算和离散应用数学。他曾在Databricks的技术咨询委员会任职，自2005年在谷歌的人工智能研究团队工作以来一直致力于人工智能研究。他的奖项包括KDD最佳论文奖和斯坦福大学Gene Golub杰出论文奖。个人主页：http://stanford.edu/~rezab/
Graph Neural Networks (GNNs), which generalize deep neural networks to graph-structured data, have drawn considerable attention and achieved state-of-the-art performance in numerous graph related tasks. However, existing GNN models mainly focus on designing graph convolution operations. The graph pooling (or downsampling) operations, that play an important role in learning hierarchical representations, are usually overlooked. In this paper, we propose a novel graph pooling operator, called Hierarchical Graph Pooling with Structure Learning (HGP-SL), which can be integrated into various graph neural network architectures. HGP-SL incorporates graph pooling and structure learning into a unified module to generate hierarchical representations of graphs. More specifically, the graph pooling operation adaptively selects a subset of nodes to form an induced subgraph for the subsequent layers. To preserve the integrity of graph's topological information, we further introduce a structure learning mechanism to learn a refined graph structure for the pooled graph at each layer. By combining HGP-SL operator with graph neural networks, we perform graph level representation learning with focus on graph classification task. Experimental results on six widely used benchmarks demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed model.
In this paper, we investigate the challenges of using reinforcement learning agents for question-answering over knowledge graphs for real-world applications. We examine the performance metrics used by state-of-the-art systems and determine that they are inadequate for such settings. More specifically, they do not evaluate the systems correctly for situations when there is no answer available and thus agents optimized for these metrics are poor at modeling confidence. We introduce a simple new performance metric for evaluating question-answering agents that is more representative of practical usage conditions, and optimize for this metric by extending the binary reward structure used in prior work to a ternary reward structure which also rewards an agent for not answering a question rather than giving an incorrect answer. We show that this can drastically improve the precision of answered questions while only not answering a limited number of previously correctly answered questions. Employing a supervised learning strategy using depth-first-search paths to bootstrap the reinforcement learning algorithm further improves performance.
Deep structured models are widely used for tasks like semantic segmentation, where explicit correlations between variables provide important prior information which generally helps to reduce the data needs of deep nets. However, current deep structured models are restricted by oftentimes very local neighborhood structure, which cannot be increased for computational complexity reasons, and by the fact that the output configuration, or a representation thereof, cannot be transformed further. Very recent approaches which address those issues include graphical model inference inside deep nets so as to permit subsequent non-linear output space transformations. However, optimization of those formulations is challenging and not well understood. Here, we develop a novel model which generalizes existing approaches, such as structured prediction energy networks, and discuss a formulation which maintains applicability of existing inference techniques.
Most previous work on neural text generation from graph-structured data relies on standard sequence-to-sequence methods. These approaches linearise the input graph to be fed to a recurrent neural network. In this paper, we propose an alternative encoder based on graph convolutional networks that directly exploits the input structure. We report results on two graph-to-sequence datasets that empirically show the benefits of explicitly encoding the input graph structure.
Model compression is significant for the wide adoption of Recurrent Neural Networks (RNNs) in both user devices possessing limited resources and business clusters requiring quick responses to large-scale service requests. This work aims to learn structurally-sparse Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) by reducing the sizes of basic structures within LSTM units, including input updates, gates, hidden states, cell states and outputs. Independently reducing the sizes of basic structures can result in inconsistent dimensions among them, and consequently, end up with invalid LSTM units. To overcome the problem, we propose Intrinsic Sparse Structures (ISS) in LSTMs. Removing a component of ISS will simultaneously decrease the sizes of all basic structures by one and thereby always maintain the dimension consistency. By learning ISS within LSTM units, the obtained LSTMs remain regular while having much smaller basic structures. Based on group Lasso regularization, our method achieves 10.59x speedup without losing any perplexity of a language modeling of Penn TreeBank dataset. It is also successfully evaluated through a compact model with only 2.69M weights for machine Question Answering of SQuAD dataset. Our approach is successfully extended to non- LSTM RNNs, like Recurrent Highway Networks (RHNs). Our source code is publicly available at https://github.com/wenwei202/iss-rnns