Image manipulation detection is different from traditional semantic object detection because it pays more attention to tampering artifacts than to image content, which suggests that richer features need to be learned. We propose a two-stream Faster R-CNN network and train it endto- end to detect the tampered regions given a manipulated image. One of the two streams is an RGB stream whose purpose is to extract features from the RGB image input to find tampering artifacts like strong contrast difference, unnatural tampered boundaries, and so on. The other is a noise stream that leverages the noise features extracted from a steganalysis rich model filter layer to discover the noise inconsistency between authentic and tampered regions. We then fuse features from the two streams through a bilinear pooling layer to further incorporate spatial co-occurrence of these two modalities. Experiments on four standard image manipulation datasets demonstrate that our two-stream framework outperforms each individual stream, and also achieves state-of-the-art performance compared to alternative methods with robustness to resizing and compression.
Retrieving object instances among cluttered scenes efficiently requires compact yet comprehensive regional image representations. Intuitively, object semantics can help build the index that focuses on the most relevant regions. However, due to the lack of bounding-box datasets for objects of interest among retrieval benchmarks, most recent work on regional representations has focused on either uniform or class-agnostic region selection. In this paper, we first fill the void by providing a new dataset of landmark bounding boxes, based on the Google Landmarks dataset, that includes $86k$ images with manually curated boxes from $15k$ unique landmarks. Then, we demonstrate how a trained landmark detector, using our new dataset, can be leveraged to index image regions and improve retrieval accuracy while being much more efficient than existing regional methods. In addition, we introduce a novel regional aggregated selective match kernel (R-ASMK) to effectively combine information from detected regions into an improved holistic image representation. R-ASMK boosts image retrieval accuracy substantially with no dimensionality increase, while even outperforming systems that index image regions independently. Our complete image retrieval system improves upon the previous state-of-the-art by significant margins on the Revisited Oxford and Paris datasets. Code and data available at the project webpage: https://github.com/tensorflow/models/tree/master/research/delf.
Benefit from the quick development of deep learning techniques, salient object detection has achieved remarkable progresses recently. However, there still exists following two major challenges that hinder its application in embedded devices, low resolution output and heavy model weight. To this end, this paper presents an accurate yet compact deep network for efficient salient object detection. More specifically, given a coarse saliency prediction in the deepest layer, we first employ residual learning to learn side-output residual features for saliency refinement, which can be achieved with very limited convolutional parameters while keep accuracy. Secondly, we further propose reverse attention to guide such side-output residual learning in a top-down manner. By erasing the current predicted salient regions from side-output features, the network can eventually explore the missing object parts and details which results in high resolution and accuracy. Experiments on six benchmark datasets demonstrate that the proposed approach compares favorably against state-of-the-art methods, and with advantages in terms of simplicity, efficiency (45 FPS) and model size (81 MB).
Despite huge success in the image domain, modern detection models such as Faster R-CNN have not been used nearly as much for video analysis. This is arguably due to the fact that detection models are designed to operate on single frames and as a result do not have a mechanism for learning motion representations directly from video. We propose a learning procedure that allows detection models such as Faster R-CNN to learn motion features directly from the RGB video data while being optimized with respect to a pose estimation task. Given a pair of video frames---Frame A and Frame B---we force our model to predict human pose in Frame A using the features from Frame B. We do so by leveraging deformable convolutions across space and time. Our network learns to spatially sample features from Frame B in order to maximize pose detection accuracy in Frame A. This naturally encourages our network to learn motion offsets encoding the spatial correspondences between the two frames. We refer to these motion offsets as DiMoFs (Discriminative Motion Features). In our experiments we show that our training scheme helps learn effective motion cues, which can be used to estimate and localize salient human motion. Furthermore, we demonstrate that as a byproduct, our model also learns features that lead to improved pose detection in still-images, and better keypoint tracking. Finally, we show how to leverage our learned model for the tasks of spatiotemporal action localization and fine-grained action recognition.
This paper tackles a new problem setting: reinforcement learning with pixel-wise rewards (pixelRL) for image processing. After the introduction of the deep Q-network, deep RL has been achieving great success. However, the applications of deep RL for image processing are still limited. Therefore, we extend deep RL to pixelRL for various image processing applications. In pixelRL, each pixel has an agent, and the agent changes the pixel value by taking an action. We also propose an effective learning method for pixelRL that significantly improves the performance by considering not only the future states of the own pixel but also those of the neighbor pixels. The proposed method can be applied to some image processing tasks that require pixel-wise manipulations, where deep RL has never been applied. We apply the proposed method to three image processing tasks: image denoising, image restoration, and local color enhancement. Our experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method achieves comparable or better performance, compared with the state-of-the-art methods based on supervised learning.
Although Faster R-CNN and its variants have shown promising performance in object detection, they only exploit simple first-order representation of object proposals for final classification and regression. Recent classification methods demonstrate that the integration of high-order statistics into deep convolutional neural networks can achieve impressive improvement, but their goal is to model whole images by discarding location information so that they cannot be directly adopted to object detection. In this paper, we make an attempt to exploit high-order statistics in object detection, aiming at generating more discriminative representations for proposals to enhance the performance of detectors. To this end, we propose a novel Multi-scale Location-aware Kernel Representation (MLKP) to capture high-order statistics of deep features in proposals. Our MLKP can be efficiently computed on a modified multi-scale feature map using a low-dimensional polynomial kernel approximation.Moreover, different from existing orderless global representations based on high-order statistics, our proposed MLKP is location retentive and sensitive so that it can be flexibly adopted to object detection. Through integrating into Faster R-CNN schema, the proposed MLKP achieves very competitive performance with state-of-the-art methods, and improves Faster R-CNN by 4.9% (mAP), 4.7% (mAP) and 5.0% (AP at IOU=[0.5:0.05:0.95]) on PASCAL VOC 2007, VOC 2012 and MS COCO benchmarks, respectively. Code is available at: https://github.com/Hwang64/MLKP.
Person Re-Identification (ReID) requires comparing two images of person captured under different conditions. Existing work based on neural networks often computes the similarity of feature maps from one single convolutional layer. In this work, we propose an efficient, end-to-end fully convolutional Siamese network that computes the similarities at multiple levels. We demonstrate that multi-level similarity can improve the accuracy considerably using low-complexity network structures in ReID problem. Specifically, first, we use several convolutional layers to extract the features of two input images. Then, we propose Convolution Similarity Network to compute the similarity score maps for the inputs. We use spatial transformer networks (STNs) to determine spatial attention. We propose to apply efficient depth-wise convolution to compute the similarity. The proposed Convolution Similarity Networks can be inserted into different convolutional layers to extract visual similarities at different levels. Furthermore, we use an improved ranking loss to further improve the performance. Our work is the first to propose to compute visual similarities at low, middle and high levels for ReID. With extensive experiments and analysis, we demonstrate that our system, compact yet effective, can achieve competitive results with much smaller model size and computational complexity.
This paper introduces an online model for object detection in videos designed to run in real-time on low-powered mobile and embedded devices. Our approach combines fast single-image object detection with convolutional long short term memory (LSTM) layers to create an interweaved recurrent-convolutional architecture. Additionally, we propose an efficient Bottleneck-LSTM layer that significantly reduces computational cost compared to regular LSTMs. Our network achieves temporal awareness by using Bottleneck-LSTMs to refine and propagate feature maps across frames. This approach is substantially faster than existing detection methods in video, outperforming the fastest single-frame models in model size and computational cost while attaining accuracy comparable to much more expensive single-frame models on the Imagenet VID 2015 dataset. Our model reaches a real-time inference speed of up to 15 FPS on a mobile CPU.
As we move towards large-scale object detection, it is unrealistic to expect annotated training data for all object classes at sufficient scale, and so methods capable of unseen object detection are required. We propose a novel zero-shot method based on training an end-to-end model that fuses semantic attribute prediction with visual features to propose object bounding boxes for seen and unseen classes. While we utilize semantic features during training, our method is agnostic to semantic information for unseen classes at test-time. Our method retains the efficiency and effectiveness of YOLO for objects seen during training, while improving its performance for novel and unseen objects. The ability of state-of-art detection methods to learn discriminative object features to reject background proposals also limits their performance for unseen objects. We posit that, to detect unseen objects, we must incorporate semantic information into the visual domain so that the learned visual features reflect this information and leads to improved recall rates for unseen objects. We test our method on PASCAL VOC and MS COCO dataset and observed significant improvements on the average precision of unseen classes.
While most steps in the modern object detection methods are learnable, the region feature extraction step remains largely hand-crafted, featured by RoI pooling methods. This work proposes a general viewpoint that unifies existing region feature extraction methods and a novel method that is end-to-end learnable. The proposed method removes most heuristic choices and outperforms its RoI pooling counterparts. It moves further towards fully learnable object detection.