With the rapid development of biomedical software and hardware, a large amount of relational data interlinking genes, proteins, chemical components, drugs, diseases, and symptoms has been collected for modern biomedical research. Many graph-based learning methods have been proposed to analyze such type of data, giving a deeper insight into the topology and knowledge behind the biomedical data, which greatly benefit to both academic research and industrial application for human healthcare. However, the main difficulty is how to handle high dimensionality and sparsity of the biomedical graphs. Recently, graph embedding methods provide an effective and efficient way to address the above issues. It converts graph-based data into a low dimensional vector space where the graph structural properties and knowledge information are well preserved. In this survey, we conduct a literature review of recent developments and trends in applying graph embedding methods for biomedical data. We also introduce important applications and tasks in the biomedical domain as well as associated public biomedical datasets.
Drug discovery and development is an extremely complex process, with high attrition contributing to the costs of delivering new medicines to patients. Recently, various machine learning approaches have been proposed and investigated to help improve the effectiveness and speed of multiple stages of the drug discovery pipeline. Among these techniques, it is especially those using Knowledge Graphs that are proving to have considerable promise across a range of tasks, including drug repurposing, drug toxicity prediction and target gene-disease prioritisation. In such a knowledge graph-based representation of drug discovery domains, crucial elements including genes, diseases and drugs are represented as entities or vertices, whilst relationships or edges between them indicate some level of interaction. For example, an edge between a disease and drug entity might represent a successful clinical trial, or an edge between two drug entities could indicate a potentially harmful interaction. In order to construct high-quality and ultimately informative knowledge graphs however, suitable data and information is of course required. In this review, we detail publicly available primary data sources containing information suitable for use in constructing various drug discovery focused knowledge graphs. We aim to help guide machine learning and knowledge graph practitioners who are interested in applying new techniques to the drug discovery field, but who may be unfamiliar with the relevant data sources. Overall we hope this review will help motivate more machine learning researchers to explore combining knowledge graphs and machine learning to help solve key and emerging questions in the drug discovery domain.
It is now widely accepted that the standard inferential toolkit used by the scientific research community -- null-hypothesis significance testing (NHST) -- is not fit for purpose. Yet despite the threat posed to the scientific enterprise, there is no agreement concerning alternative approaches. This lack of consensus reflects long-standing issues concerning Bayesian methods, the principal alternative to NHST. We report on recent work that builds on an approach to inference put forward over 70 years ago to address the well-known "Problem of Priors" in Bayesian analysis, by reversing the conventional prior-likelihood-posterior ("forward") use of Bayes's Theorem. Such Reverse-Bayes analysis allows priors to be deduced from the likelihood by requiring that the posterior achieve a specified level of credibility. We summarise the technical underpinning of this approach, and show how it opens up new approaches to common inferential challenges, such as assessing the credibility of scientific findings, setting them in appropriate context, estimating the probability of successful replications, and extracting more insight from NHST while reducing the risk of misinterpretation. We argue that Reverse-Bayes methods have a key role to play in making Bayesian methods more accessible and attractive to the scientific community. As a running example we consider a recently published meta-analysis from several randomized controlled clinical trials investigating the association between corticosteroids and mortality in hospitalized patients with COVID-19.
Semi-supervised learning (SSL) has tremendous value in practice due to its ability to utilize both labeled data and unlabelled data. An important class of SSL methods is to naturally represent data as graphs such that the label information of unlabelled samples can be inferred from the graphs, which corresponds to graph-based semi-supervised learning (GSSL) methods. GSSL methods have demonstrated their advantages in various domains due to their uniqueness of structure, the universality of applications, and their scalability to large scale data. Focusing on this class of methods, this work aims to provide both researchers and practitioners with a solid and systematic understanding of relevant advances as well as the underlying connections among them. This makes our paper distinct from recent surveys that cover an overall picture of SSL methods while neglecting fundamental understanding of GSSL methods. In particular, a major contribution of this paper lies in a new generalized taxonomy for GSSL, including graph regularization and graph embedding methods, with the most up-to-date references and useful resources such as codes, datasets, and applications. Furthermore, we present several potential research directions as future work with insights into this rapidly growing field.
Deep models trained in supervised mode have achieved remarkable success on a variety of tasks. When labeled samples are limited, self-supervised learning (SSL) is emerging as a new paradigm for making use of large amounts of unlabeled samples. SSL has achieved promising performance on natural language and image learning tasks. Recently, there is a trend to extend such success to graph data using graph neural networks (GNNs). In this survey, we provide a unified review of different ways of training GNNs using SSL. Specifically, we categorize SSL methods into contrastive and predictive models. In either category, we provide a unified framework for methods as well as how these methods differ in each component under the framework. Our unified treatment of SSL methods for GNNs sheds light on the similarities and differences of various methods, setting the stage for developing new methods and algorithms. We also summarize different SSL settings and the corresponding datasets used in each setting. To facilitate methodological development and empirical comparison, we develop a standardized testbed for SSL in GNNs, including implementations of common baseline methods, datasets, and evaluation metrics.
Deep neural networks have revolutionized many machine learning tasks in power systems, ranging from pattern recognition to signal processing. The data in these tasks is typically represented in Euclidean domains. Nevertheless, there is an increasing number of applications in power systems, where data are collected from non-Euclidean domains and represented as the graph-structured data with high dimensional features and interdependency among nodes. The complexity of graph-structured data has brought significant challenges to the existing deep neural networks defined in Euclidean domains. Recently, many studies on extending deep neural networks for graph-structured data in power systems have emerged. In this paper, a comprehensive overview of graph neural networks (GNNs) in power systems is proposed. Specifically, several classical paradigms of GNNs structures (e.g., graph convolutional networks, graph recurrent neural networks, graph attention networks, graph generative networks, spatial-temporal graph convolutional networks, and hybrid forms of GNNs) are summarized, and key applications in power systems such as fault diagnosis, power prediction, power flow calculation, and data generation are reviewed in detail. Furthermore, main issues and some research trends about the applications of GNNs in power systems are discussed.
The rapid advancements in machine learning, graphics processing technologies and availability of medical imaging data has led to a rapid increase in use of machine learning models in the medical domain. This was exacerbated by the rapid advancements in convolutional neural network (CNN) based architectures, which were adopted by the medical imaging community to assist clinicians in disease diagnosis. Since the grand success of AlexNet in 2012, CNNs have been increasingly used in medical image analysis to improve the efficiency of human clinicians. In recent years, three-dimensional (3D) CNNs have been employed for analysis of medical images. In this paper, we trace the history of how the 3D CNN was developed from its machine learning roots, brief mathematical description of 3D CNN and the preprocessing steps required for medical images before feeding them to 3D CNNs. We review the significant research in the field of 3D medical imaging analysis using 3D CNNs (and its variants) in different medical areas such as classification, segmentation, detection, and localization. We conclude by discussing the challenges associated with the use of 3D CNNs in the medical imaging domain (and the use of deep learning models, in general) and possible future trends in the field.
Recent advances in sensor and mobile devices have enabled an unprecedented increase in the availability and collection of urban trajectory data, thus increasing the demand for more efficient ways to manage and analyze the data being produced. In this survey, we comprehensively review recent research trends in trajectory data management, ranging from trajectory pre-processing, storage, common trajectory analytic tools, such as querying spatial-only and spatial-textual trajectory data, and trajectory clustering. We also explore four closely related analytical tasks commonly used with trajectory data in interactive or real-time processing. Deep trajectory learning is also reviewed for the first time. Finally, we outline the essential qualities that a trajectory management system should possess in order to maximize flexibility.
To solve the information explosion problem and enhance user experience in various online applications, recommender systems have been developed to model users preferences. Although numerous efforts have been made toward more personalized recommendations, recommender systems still suffer from several challenges, such as data sparsity and cold start. In recent years, generating recommendations with the knowledge graph as side information has attracted considerable interest. Such an approach can not only alleviate the abovementioned issues for a more accurate recommendation, but also provide explanations for recommended items. In this paper, we conduct a systematical survey of knowledge graph-based recommender systems. We collect recently published papers in this field and summarize them from two perspectives. On the one hand, we investigate the proposed algorithms by focusing on how the papers utilize the knowledge graph for accurate and explainable recommendation. On the other hand, we introduce datasets used in these works. Finally, we propose several potential research directions in this field.
Lots of learning tasks require dealing with graph data which contains rich relation information among elements. Modeling physics system, learning molecular fingerprints, predicting protein interface, and classifying diseases require a model to learn from graph inputs. In other domains such as learning from non-structural data like texts and images, reasoning on extracted structures, like the dependency tree of sentences and the scene graph of images, is an important research topic which also needs graph reasoning models. Graph neural networks (GNNs) are connectionist models that capture the dependence of graphs via message passing between the nodes of graphs. Unlike standard neural networks, graph neural networks retain a state that can represent information from its neighborhood with arbitrary depth. Although the primitive GNNs have been found difficult to train for a fixed point, recent advances in network architectures, optimization techniques, and parallel computation have enabled successful learning with them. In recent years, systems based on variants of graph neural networks such as graph convolutional network (GCN), graph attention network (GAT), gated graph neural network (GGNN) have demonstrated ground-breaking performance on many tasks mentioned above. In this survey, we provide a detailed review over existing graph neural network models, systematically categorize the applications, and propose four open problems for future research.
Deep learning has been shown successful in a number of domains, ranging from acoustics, images to natural language processing. However, applying deep learning to the ubiquitous graph data is non-trivial because of the unique characteristics of graphs. Recently, a significant amount of research efforts have been devoted to this area, greatly advancing graph analyzing techniques. In this survey, we comprehensively review different kinds of deep learning methods applied to graphs. We divide existing methods into three main categories: semi-supervised methods including Graph Neural Networks and Graph Convolutional Networks, unsupervised methods including Graph Autoencoders, and recent advancements including Graph Recurrent Neural Networks and Graph Reinforcement Learning. We then provide a comprehensive overview of these methods in a systematic manner following their history of developments. We also analyze the differences of these methods and how to composite different architectures. Finally, we briefly outline their applications and discuss potential future directions.