Reasoning is essential for the development of large knowledge graphs, especially for completion, which aims to infer new triples based on existing ones. Both rules and embeddings can be used for knowledge graph reasoning and they have their own advantages and difficulties. Rule-based reasoning is accurate and explainable but rule learning with searching over the graph always suffers from efficiency due to huge search space. Embedding-based reasoning is more scalable and efficient as the reasoning is conducted via computation between embeddings, but it has difficulty learning good representations for sparse entities because a good embedding relies heavily on data richness. Based on this observation, in this paper we explore how embedding and rule learning can be combined together and complement each other's difficulties with their advantages. We propose a novel framework IterE iteratively learning embeddings and rules, in which rules are learned from embeddings with proper pruning strategy and embeddings are learned from existing triples and new triples inferred by rules. Evaluations on embedding qualities of IterE show that rules help improve the quality of sparse entity embeddings and their link prediction results. We also evaluate the efficiency of rule learning and quality of rules from IterE compared with AMIE+, showing that IterE is capable of generating high quality rules more efficiently. Experiments show that iteratively learning embeddings and rules benefit each other during learning and prediction.

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知识图谱(Knowledge Graph),在图书情报界称为知识域可视化或知识领域映射地图,是显示知识发展进程与结构关系的一系列各种不同的图形,用可视化技术描述知识资源及其载体,挖掘、分析、构建、绘制和显示知识及它们之间的相互联系。 知识图谱是通过将应用数学、图形学、信息可视化技术、信息科学等学科的理论与方法与计量学引文分析、共现分析等方法结合,并利用可视化的图谱形象地展示学科的核心结构、发展历史、前沿领域以及整体知识架构达到多学科融合目的的现代理论。它能为学科研究提供切实的、有价值的参考。

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Path-based relational reasoning over knowledge graphs has become increasingly popular due to a variety of downstream applications such as question answering in dialogue systems, fact prediction, and recommender systems. In recent years, reinforcement learning (RL) has provided solutions that are more interpretable and explainable than other deep learning models. However, these solutions still face several challenges, including large action space for the RL agent and accurate representation of entity neighborhood structure. We address these problems by introducing a type-enhanced RL agent that uses the local neighborhood information for efficient path-based reasoning over knowledge graphs. Our solution uses graph neural network (GNN) for encoding the neighborhood information and utilizes entity types to prune the action space. Experiments on real-world dataset show that our method outperforms state-of-the-art RL methods and discovers more novel paths during the training procedure.

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Learning embeddings of entities and relations existing in knowledge bases allows the discovery of hidden patterns in data. In this work, we examine the geometrical space's contribution to the task of knowledge base completion. We focus on the family of translational models, whose performance has been lagging, and propose a model, dubbed HyperKG, which exploits the hyperbolic space in order to better reflect the topological properties of knowledge bases. We investigate the type of regularities that our model can capture and we show that it is a prominent candidate for effectively representing a subset of Datalog rules. We empirically show, using a variety of link prediction datasets, that hyperbolic space allows to narrow down significantly the performance gap between translational and bilinear models.

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The recent proliferation of knowledge graphs (KGs) coupled with incomplete or partial information, in the form of missing relations (links) between entities, has fueled a lot of research on knowledge base completion (also known as relation prediction). Several recent works suggest that convolutional neural network (CNN) based models generate richer and more expressive feature embeddings and hence also perform well on relation prediction. However, we observe that these KG embeddings treat triples independently and thus fail to cover the complex and hidden information that is inherently implicit in the local neighborhood surrounding a triple. To this effect, our paper proposes a novel attention based feature embedding that captures both entity and relation features in any given entity's neighborhood. Additionally, we also encapsulate relation clusters and multihop relations in our model. Our empirical study offers insights into the efficacy of our attention based model and we show marked performance gains in comparison to state of the art methods on all datasets.

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Knowledge graph embedding aims to learn distributed representations for entities and relations, and is proven to be effective in many applications. Crossover interactions --- bi-directional effects between entities and relations --- help select related information when predicting a new triple, but haven't been formally discussed before. In this paper, we propose CrossE, a novel knowledge graph embedding which explicitly simulates crossover interactions. It not only learns one general embedding for each entity and relation as most previous methods do, but also generates multiple triple specific embeddings for both of them, named interaction embeddings. We evaluate embeddings on typical link prediction tasks and find that CrossE achieves state-of-the-art results on complex and more challenging datasets. Furthermore, we evaluate embeddings from a new perspective --- giving explanations for predicted triples, which is important for real applications. In this work, an explanation for a triple is regarded as a reliable closed-path between the head and the tail entity. Compared to other baselines, we show experimentally that CrossE, benefiting from interaction embeddings, is more capable of generating reliable explanations to support its predictions.

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Large scale knowledge graph embedding has attracted much attention from both academia and industry in the field of Artificial Intelligence. However, most existing methods concentrate solely on fact triples contained in the given knowledge graph. Inspired by the fact that logic rules can provide a flexible and declarative language for expressing rich background knowledge, it is natural to integrate logic rules into knowledge graph embedding, to transfer human knowledge to entity and relation embedding, and strengthen the learning process. In this paper, we propose a novel logic rule-enhanced method which can be easily integrated with any translation based knowledge graph embedding model, such as TransE . We first introduce a method to automatically mine the logic rules and corresponding confidences from the triples. And then, to put both triples and mined logic rules within the same semantic space, all triples in the knowledge graph are represented as first-order logic. Finally, we define several operations on the first-order logic and minimize a global loss over both of the mined logic rules and the transformed first-order logics. We conduct extensive experiments for link prediction and triple classification on three datasets: WN18, FB166, and FB15K. Experiments show that the rule-enhanced method can significantly improve the performance of several baselines. The highlight of our model is that the filtered Hits@1, which is a pivotal evaluation in the knowledge inference task, has a significant improvement (up to 700% improvement).

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Link prediction for knowledge graphs is the task of predicting missing relationships between entities. Previous work on link prediction has focused on shallow, fast models which can scale to large knowledge graphs. However, these models learn less expressive features than deep, multi-layer models -- which potentially limits performance. In this work, we introduce ConvE, a multi-layer convolutional network model for link prediction, and report state-of-the-art results for several established datasets. We also show that the model is highly parameter efficient, yielding the same performance as DistMult and R-GCN with 8x and 17x fewer parameters. Analysis of our model suggests that it is particularly effective at modelling nodes with high indegree -- which are common in highly-connected, complex knowledge graphs such as Freebase and YAGO3. In addition, it has been noted that the WN18 and FB15k datasets suffer from test set leakage, due to inverse relations from the training set being present in the test set -- however, the extent of this issue has so far not been quantified. We find this problem to be severe: a simple rule-based model can achieve state-of-the-art results on both WN18 and FB15k. To ensure that models are evaluated on datasets where simply exploiting inverse relations cannot yield competitive results, we investigate and validate several commonly used datasets -- deriving robust variants where necessary. We then perform experiments on these robust datasets for our own and several previously proposed models, and find that ConvE achieves state-of-the-art Mean Reciprocal Rank across all datasets.

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Inferring missing links in knowledge graphs (KG) has attracted a lot of attention from the research community. In this paper, we tackle a practical query answering task involving predicting the relation of a given entity pair. We frame this prediction problem as an inference problem in a probabilistic graphical model and aim at resolving it from a variational inference perspective. In order to model the relation between the query entity pair, we assume that there exists an underlying latent variable (paths connecting two nodes) in the KG, which carries the equivalent semantics of their relations. However, due to the intractability of connections in large KGs, we propose to use variation inference to maximize the evidence lower bound. More specifically, our framework (\textsc{Diva}) is composed of three modules, i.e. a posterior approximator, a prior (path finder), and a likelihood (path reasoner). By using variational inference, we are able to incorporate them closely into a unified architecture and jointly optimize them to perform KG reasoning. With active interactions among these sub-modules, \textsc{Diva} is better at handling noise and coping with more complex reasoning scenarios. In order to evaluate our method, we conduct the experiment of the link prediction task on multiple datasets and achieve state-of-the-art performances on both datasets.

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A visual-relational knowledge graph (KG) is a multi-relational graph whose entities are associated with images. We introduce ImageGraph, a KG with 1,330 relation types, 14,870 entities, and 829,931 images. Visual-relational KGs lead to novel probabilistic query types where images are treated as first-class citizens. Both the prediction of relations between unseen images and multi-relational image retrieval can be formulated as query types in a visual-relational KG. We approach the problem of answering such queries with a novel combination of deep convolutional networks and models for learning knowledge graph embeddings. The resulting models can answer queries such as "How are these two unseen images related to each other?" We also explore a zero-shot learning scenario where an image of an entirely new entity is linked with multiple relations to entities of an existing KG. The multi-relational grounding of unseen entity images into a knowledge graph serves as the description of such an entity. We conduct experiments to demonstrate that the proposed deep architectures in combination with KG embedding objectives can answer the visual-relational queries efficiently and accurately.

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Knowledge Graph Embedding methods aim at representing entities and relations in a knowledge base as points or vectors in a continuous vector space. Several approaches using embeddings have shown promising results on tasks such as link prediction, entity recommendation, question answering, and triplet classification. However, only a few methods can compute low-dimensional embeddings of very large knowledge bases. In this paper, we propose KG2Vec, a novel approach to Knowledge Graph Embedding based on the skip-gram model. Instead of using a predefined scoring function, we learn it relying on Long Short-Term Memories. We evaluated the goodness of our embeddings on knowledge graph completion and show that KG2Vec is comparable to the quality of the scalable state-of-the-art approaches and can process large graphs by parsing more than a hundred million triples in less than 6 hours on common hardware.

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We address the problem of learning vector representations for entities and relations in Knowledge Graphs (KGs) for Knowledge Base Completion (KBC). This problem has received significant attention in the past few years and multiple methods have been proposed. Most of the existing methods in the literature use a predefined characteristic scoring function for evaluating the correctness of KG triples. These scoring functions distinguish correct triples (high score) from incorrect ones (low score). However, their performance vary across different datasets. In this work, we demonstrate that a simple neural network based score function can consistently achieve near start-of-the-art performance on multiple datasets. We also quantitatively demonstrate biases in standard benchmark datasets, and highlight the need to perform evaluation spanning various datasets.

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