Recently, graph neural networks (GNNs) have become an important and active research direction in deep learning. It is worth noting that most of the existing GNN-based methods learn graph representations within the Euclidean vector space. Beyond the Euclidean space, learning representation and embeddings in hyper-complex space have also shown to be a promising and effective approach. To this end, we propose Quaternion Graph Neural Networks (QGNN) to learn graph representations within the Quaternion space. As demonstrated, the Quaternion space, a hyper-complex vector space, provides highly meaningful computations and analogical calculus through Hamilton product compared to the Euclidean and complex vector spaces. Our QGNN obtains state-of-the-art results on a range of benchmark datasets for graph classification and node classification. Besides, regarding knowledge graphs, our QGNN-based embedding model achieves state-of-the-art results on three new and challenging benchmark datasets for knowledge graph completion. Our code is available at: \url{https://github.com/daiquocnguyen/QGNN}.

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神经网络(Neural Networks)是世界上三个最古老的神经建模学会的档案期刊:国际神经网络学会(INNS)、欧洲神经网络学会(ENNS)和日本神经网络学会(JNNS)。神经网络提供了一个论坛,以发展和培育一个国际社会的学者和实践者感兴趣的所有方面的神经网络和相关方法的计算智能。神经网络欢迎高质量论文的提交,有助于全面的神经网络研究,从行为和大脑建模,学习算法,通过数学和计算分析,系统的工程和技术应用,大量使用神经网络的概念和技术。这一独特而广泛的范围促进了生物和技术研究之间的思想交流,并有助于促进对生物启发的计算智能感兴趣的跨学科社区的发展。因此,神经网络编委会代表的专家领域包括心理学,神经生物学,计算机科学,工程,数学,物理。该杂志发表文章、信件和评论以及给编辑的信件、社论、时事、软件调查和专利信息。文章发表在五个部分之一:认知科学,神经科学,学习系统,数学和计算分析、工程和应用。 官网地址:http://dblp.uni-trier.de/db/journals/nn/

We propose a novel approach for visual representation learning called Signature-Graph Neural Networks (SGN). SGN learns latent global structures that augment the feature representation of Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN). SGN constructs unique undirected graphs for each image based on the CNN feature maps. The feature maps are partitioned into a set of equal and non-overlapping patches. The graph nodes are located on high-contrast sharp convolution features with the local maxima or minima in these patches. The node embeddings are aggregated through novel Signature-Graphs based on horizontal and vertical edge connections. The representation vectors are then computed based on the spectral Laplacian eigenvalues of the graphs. SGN outperforms existing methods of recent graph convolutional networks, generative adversarial networks, and auto-encoders with image classification accuracy of 99.65% on ASIRRA, 99.91% on MNIST, 98.55% on Fashion-MNIST, 96.18% on CIFAR-10, 84.71% on CIFAR-100, 94.36% on STL10, and 95.86% on SVHN datasets. We also introduce a novel implementation of the state-of-the-art multi-head attention (MHA) on top of the proposed SGN. Adding SGN to MHA improved the image classification accuracy from 86.92% to 94.36% on the STL10 dataset

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In recent years, knowledge graph completion methods have been extensively studied, in which graph embedding approaches learn low dimensional representations of entities and relations to predict missing facts. Those models usually view the relation vector as a translation (TransE) or rotation (rotatE and QuatE) between entity pairs, enjoying the advantage of simplicity and efficiency. However, QuatE has two main problems: 1) The model to capture the ability of representation and feature interaction between entities and relations are relatively weak because it only relies on the rigorous calculation of three embedding vectors; 2) Although the model can handle various relation patterns including symmetry, anti-symmetry, inversion and composition, but mapping properties of relations are not to be considered, such as one-to-many, many-to-one, and many-to-many. In this paper, we propose a novel model, QuatDE, with a dynamic mapping strategy to explicitly capture a variety of relational patterns, enhancing the feature interaction capability between elements of the triplet. Our model relies on three extra vectors donated as subject transfer vector, object transfer vector and relation transfer vector. The mapping strategy dynamically selects the transition vectors associated with each triplet, used to adjust the point position of the entity embedding vectors in the quaternion space via Hamilton product. Experiment results show QuatDE achieves state-of-the-art performance on three well-established knowledge graph completion benchmarks. In particular, the MR evaluation has relatively increased by 26% on WN18 and 15% on WN18RR, which proves the generalization of QuatDE.

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Data augmentation has been widely used to improve generalizability of machine learning models. However, comparatively little work studies data augmentation for graphs. This is largely due to the complex, non-Euclidean structure of graphs, which limits possible manipulation operations. Augmentation operations commonly used in vision and language have no analogs for graphs. Our work studies graph data augmentation for graph neural networks (GNNs) in the context of improving semi-supervised node-classification. We discuss practical and theoretical motivations, considerations and strategies for graph data augmentation. Our work shows that neural edge predictors can effectively encode class-homophilic structure to promote intra-class edges and demote inter-class edges in given graph structure, and our main contribution introduces the GAug graph data augmentation framework, which leverages these insights to improve performance in GNN-based node classification via edge prediction. Extensive experiments on multiple benchmarks show that augmentation via GAug improves performance across GNN architectures and datasets.

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Graph neural networks (GNNs) are typically applied to static graphs that are assumed to be known upfront. This static input structure is often informed purely by insight of the machine learning practitioner, and might not be optimal for the actual task the GNN is solving. In absence of reliable domain expertise, one might resort to inferring the latent graph structure, which is often difficult due to the vast search space of possible graphs. Here we introduce Pointer Graph Networks (PGNs) which augment sets or graphs with additional inferred edges for improved model expressivity. PGNs allow each node to dynamically point to another node, followed by message passing over these pointers. The sparsity of this adaptable graph structure makes learning tractable while still being sufficiently expressive to simulate complex algorithms. Critically, the pointing mechanism is directly supervised to model long-term sequences of operations on classical data structures, incorporating useful structural inductive biases from theoretical computer science. Qualitatively, we demonstrate that PGNs can learn parallelisable variants of pointer-based data structures, namely disjoint set unions and link/cut trees. PGNs generalise out-of-distribution to 5x larger test inputs on dynamic graph connectivity tasks, outperforming unrestricted GNNs and Deep Sets.

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Learning node embeddings that capture a node's position within the broader graph structure is crucial for many prediction tasks on graphs. However, existing Graph Neural Network (GNN) architectures have limited power in capturing the position/location of a given node with respect to all other nodes of the graph. Here we propose Position-aware Graph Neural Networks (P-GNNs), a new class of GNNs for computing position-aware node embeddings. P-GNN first samples sets of anchor nodes, computes the distance of a given target node to each anchor-set,and then learns a non-linear distance-weighted aggregation scheme over the anchor-sets. This way P-GNNs can capture positions/locations of nodes with respect to the anchor nodes. P-GNNs have several advantages: they are inductive, scalable,and can incorporate node feature information. We apply P-GNNs to multiple prediction tasks including link prediction and community detection. We show that P-GNNs consistently outperform state of the art GNNs, with up to 66% improvement in terms of the ROC AUC score.

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Graph convolutional networks (GCNs) have been successfully applied in node classification tasks of network mining. However, most of these models based on neighborhood aggregation are usually shallow and lack the "graph pooling" mechanism, which prevents the model from obtaining adequate global information. In order to increase the receptive field, we propose a novel deep Hierarchical Graph Convolutional Network (H-GCN) for semi-supervised node classification. H-GCN first repeatedly aggregates structurally similar nodes to hyper-nodes and then refines the coarsened graph to the original to restore the representation for each node. Instead of merely aggregating one- or two-hop neighborhood information, the proposed coarsening procedure enlarges the receptive field for each node, hence more global information can be captured. The proposed H-GCN model shows strong empirical performance on various public benchmark graph datasets, outperforming state-of-the-art methods and acquiring up to 5.9% performance improvement in terms of accuracy. In addition, when only a few labeled samples are provided, our model gains substantial improvements.

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Graph Neural Networks (GNNs) are based on repeated aggregations of information across nodes' neighbors in a graph. However, because common neighbors are shared between different nodes, this leads to repeated and inefficient computations. We propose Hierarchically Aggregated computation Graphs (HAGs), a new GNN graph representation that explicitly avoids redundancy by managing intermediate aggregation results hierarchically, eliminating repeated computations and unnecessary data transfers in GNN training and inference. We introduce an accurate cost function to quantitatively evaluate the runtime performance of different HAGs and use a novel HAG search algorithm to find optimized HAGs. Experiments show that the HAG representation significantly outperforms the standard GNN graph representation by increasing the end-to-end training throughput by up to 2.8x and reducing the aggregations and data transfers in GNN training by up to 6.3x and 5.6x, while maintaining the original model accuracy.

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Learning a faithful directed acyclic graph (DAG) from samples of a joint distribution is a challenging combinatorial problem, owing to the intractable search space superexponential in the number of graph nodes. A recent breakthrough formulates the problem as a continuous optimization with a structural constraint that ensures acyclicity (Zheng et al., 2018). The authors apply the approach to the linear structural equation model (SEM) and the least-squares loss function that are statistically well justified but nevertheless limited. Motivated by the widespread success of deep learning that is capable of capturing complex nonlinear mappings, in this work we propose a deep generative model and apply a variant of the structural constraint to learn the DAG. At the heart of the generative model is a variational autoencoder parameterized by a novel graph neural network architecture, which we coin DAG-GNN. In addition to the richer capacity, an advantage of the proposed model is that it naturally handles discrete variables as well as vector-valued ones. We demonstrate that on synthetic data sets, the proposed method learns more accurate graphs for nonlinearly generated samples; and on benchmark data sets with discrete variables, the learned graphs are reasonably close to the global optima. The code is available at \url{https://github.com/fishmoon1234/DAG-GNN}.

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Graph convolutional networks (GCNs) have been successfully applied in node classification tasks of network mining. However, most of these models based on neighborhood aggregation are usually shallow and lack the "graph pooling" mechanism, which prevents the model from obtaining adequate global information. In order to increase the receptive field, we propose a novel deep Hierarchical Graph Convolutional Network (H-GCN) for semi-supervised node classification. H-GCN first repeatedly aggregates structurally similar nodes to hyper-nodes and then refines the coarsened graph to the original to restore the representation for each node. Instead of merely aggregating one- or two-hop neighborhood information, the proposed coarsening procedure enlarges the receptive field for each node, hence more global information can be learned. Comprehensive experiments conducted on public datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method over the state-of-art methods. Notably, our model gains substantial improvements when only a few labeled samples are provided.

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Graph Neural Networks (GNNs) for representation learning of graphs broadly follow a neighborhood aggregation framework, where the representation vector of a node is computed by recursively aggregating and transforming feature vectors of its neighboring nodes. Many GNN variants have been proposed and have achieved state-of-the-art results on both node and graph classification tasks. However, despite GNNs revolutionizing graph representation learning, there is limited understanding of their representational properties and limitations. Here, we present a theoretical framework for analyzing the expressive power of GNNs in capturing different graph structures. Our results characterize the discriminative power of popular GNN variants, such as Graph Convolutional Networks and GraphSAGE, and show that they cannot learn to distinguish certain simple graph structures. We then develop a simple architecture that is provably the most expressive among the class of GNNs and is as powerful as the Weisfeiler-Lehman graph isomorphism test. We empirically validate our theoretical findings on a number of graph classification benchmarks, and demonstrate that our model achieves state-of-the-art performance.

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