External knowledge is often useful for natural language understanding tasks. We introduce a contextual text representation model called Conceptual-Contextual (CC) embeddings, which incorporates structured knowledge into text representations. Unlike entity embedding methods, our approach encodes a knowledge graph into a context model. CC embeddings can be easily reused for a wide range of tasks just like pre-trained language models. Our model effectively encodes the huge UMLS database by leveraging semantic generalizability. Experiments on electronic health records (EHRs) and medical text processing benchmarks showed our model gives a major boost to the performance of supervised medical NLP tasks.

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ACM/IEEE第23届模型驱动工程语言和系统国际会议,是模型驱动软件和系统工程的首要会议系列,由ACM-SIGSOFT和IEEE-TCSE支持组织。自1998年以来,模型涵盖了建模的各个方面,从语言和方法到工具和应用程序。模特的参加者来自不同的背景,包括研究人员、学者、工程师和工业专业人士。MODELS 2019是一个论坛,参与者可以围绕建模和模型驱动的软件和系统交流前沿研究成果和创新实践经验。今年的版本将为建模社区提供进一步推进建模基础的机会,并在网络物理系统、嵌入式系统、社会技术系统、云计算、大数据、机器学习、安全、开源等新兴领域提出建模的创新应用以及可持续性。 官网链接:http://www.modelsconference.org/

Contextual embeddings, such as ELMo and BERT, move beyond global word representations like Word2Vec and achieve ground-breaking performance on a wide range of natural language processing tasks. Contextual embeddings assign each word a representation based on its context, thereby capturing uses of words across varied contexts and encoding knowledge that transfers across languages. In this survey, we review existing contextual embedding models, cross-lingual polyglot pre-training, the application of contextual embeddings in downstream tasks, model compression, and model analyses.

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Pre-trained language representation models, such as BERT, capture a general language representation from large-scale corpora, but lack domain-specific knowledge. When reading a domain text, experts make inferences with relevant knowledge. For machines to achieve this capability, we propose a knowledge-enabled language representation model (K-BERT) with knowledge graphs (KGs), in which triples are injected into the sentences as domain knowledge. However, too much knowledge incorporation may divert the sentence from its correct meaning, which is called knowledge noise (KN) issue. To overcome KN, K-BERT introduces soft-position and visible matrix to limit the impact of knowledge. K-BERT can easily inject domain knowledge into the models by equipped with a KG without pre-training by-self because it is capable of loading model parameters from the pre-trained BERT. Our investigation reveals promising results in twelve NLP tasks. Especially in domain-specific tasks (including finance, law, and medicine), K-BERT significantly outperforms BERT, which demonstrates that K-BERT is an excellent choice for solving the knowledge-driven problems that require experts.

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Recently, biomedical version of embeddings obtained from language models such as BioELMo have shown state-of-the-art results for the textual inference task in the medical domain. In this paper, we explore how to incorporate structured domain knowledge, available in the form of a knowledge graph (UMLS), for the Medical NLI task. Specifically, we experiment with fusing embeddings obtained from knowledge graph with the state-of-the-art approaches for NLI task (ESIM model). We also experiment with fusing the domain-specific sentiment information for the task. Experiments conducted on MedNLI dataset clearly show that this strategy improves the baseline BioELMo architecture for the Medical NLI task.

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External knowledge is often useful for natural language understanding tasks. We introduce a contextual text representation model called Conceptual-Contextual (CC) embeddings, which incorporates structured knowledge into text representations. Unlike entity embedding methods, our approach encodes a knowledge graph into a context model. CC embeddings can be easily reused for a wide range of tasks just like pre-trained language models. Our model effectively encodes the huge UMLS database by leveraging semantic generalizability. Experiments on electronic health records (EHRs) and medical text processing benchmarks showed our model gives a major boost to the performance of supervised medical NLP tasks.

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In information retrieval (IR) and related tasks, term weighting approaches typically consider the frequency of the term in the document and in the collection in order to compute a score reflecting the importance of the term for the document. In tasks characterized by the presence of training data (such as text classification) it seems logical that the term weighting function should take into account the distribution (as estimated from training data) of the term across the classes of interest. Although `supervised term weighting' approaches that use this intuition have been described before, they have failed to show consistent improvements. In this article we analyse the possible reasons for this failure, and call consolidated assumptions into question. Following this criticism we propose a novel supervised term weighting approach that, instead of relying on any predefined formula, learns a term weighting function optimised on the training set of interest; we dub this approach \emph{Learning to Weight} (LTW). The experiments that we run on several well-known benchmarks, and using different learning methods, show that our method outperforms previous term weighting approaches in text classification.

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Text classification is an important and classical problem in natural language processing. There have been a number of studies that applied convolutional neural networks (convolution on regular grid, e.g., sequence) to classification. However, only a limited number of studies have explored the more flexible graph convolutional neural networks (convolution on non-grid, e.g., arbitrary graph) for the task. In this work, we propose to use graph convolutional networks for text classification. We build a single text graph for a corpus based on word co-occurrence and document word relations, then learn a Text Graph Convolutional Network (Text GCN) for the corpus. Our Text GCN is initialized with one-hot representation for word and document, it then jointly learns the embeddings for both words and documents, as supervised by the known class labels for documents. Our experimental results on multiple benchmark datasets demonstrate that a vanilla Text GCN without any external word embeddings or knowledge outperforms state-of-the-art methods for text classification. On the other hand, Text GCN also learns predictive word and document embeddings. In addition, experimental results show that the improvement of Text GCN over state-of-the-art comparison methods become more prominent as we lower the percentage of training data, suggesting the robustness of Text GCN to less training data in text classification.

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We introduce a new method DOLORES for learning knowledge graph embeddings that effectively captures contextual cues and dependencies among entities and relations. First, we note that short paths on knowledge graphs comprising of chains of entities and relations can encode valuable information regarding their contextual usage. We operationalize this notion by representing knowledge graphs not as a collection of triples but as a collection of entity-relation chains, and learn embeddings for entities and relations using deep neural models that capture such contextual usage. In particular, our model is based on Bi-Directional LSTMs and learn deep representations of entities and relations from constructed entity-relation chains. We show that these representations can very easily be incorporated into existing models to significantly advance the state of the art on several knowledge graph prediction tasks like link prediction, triple classification, and missing relation type prediction (in some cases by at least 9.5%).

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Contextual word representations derived from pre-trained bidirectional language models (biLMs) have recently been shown to provide significant improvements to the state of the art for a wide range of NLP tasks. However, many questions remain as to how and why these models are so effective. In this paper, we present a detailed empirical study of how the choice of neural architecture (e.g. LSTM, CNN, or self attention) influences both end task accuracy and qualitative properties of the representations that are learned. We show there is a tradeoff between speed and accuracy, but all architectures learn high quality contextual representations that outperform word embeddings for four challenging NLP tasks. Additionally, all architectures learn representations that vary with network depth, from exclusively morphological based at the word embedding layer through local syntax based in the lower contextual layers to longer range semantics such coreference at the upper layers. Together, these results suggest that unsupervised biLMs, independent of architecture, are learning much more about the structure of language than previously appreciated.

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Neural word embeddings have been widely used in biomedical Natural Language Processing (NLP) applications since they provide vector representations of words that capture the semantic properties of words and the linguistic relationship between words. Many biomedical applications use different textual sources to train word embeddings and apply these word embeddings to downstream biomedical applications. However, there has been little work on comprehensively evaluating the word embeddings trained from these resources. In this study, we provide a comprehensive empirical evaluation of word embeddings trained from four different resources, namely clinical notes, biomedical publications, Wikepedia, and news. We perform the evaluation qualitatively and quantitatively. In qualitative evaluation, we manually inspect five most similar medical words to a given set of target medical words, and then analyze word embeddings through the visualization of those word embeddings. Quantitative evaluation falls into two categories: extrinsic and intrinsic evaluation. Based on the evaluation results, we can draw the following conclusions. First, EHR and PubMed can capture the semantics of medical terms better than GloVe and Google News and find more relevant similar medical terms. Second, the medical semantic similarity captured by the word embeddings trained on EHR and PubMed are closer to human experts' judgments, compared to these trained on GloVe and Google News. Third, there does not exist a consistent global ranking of word embedding quality for downstream biomedical NLP applications. However, adding word embeddings as extra features will improve results on most downstream tasks. Finally, word embeddings trained from a similar domain corpus do not necessarily have better performance than other word embeddings for any downstream biomedical tasks.

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Standard deep learning systems require thousands or millions of examples to learn a concept, and cannot integrate new concepts easily. By contrast, humans have an incredible ability to do one-shot or few-shot learning. For instance, from just hearing a word used in a sentence, humans can infer a great deal about it, by leveraging what the syntax and semantics of the surrounding words tells us. Here, we draw inspiration from this to highlight a simple technique by which deep recurrent networks can similarly exploit their prior knowledge to learn a useful representation for a new word from little data. This could make natural language processing systems much more flexible, by allowing them to learn continually from the new words they encounter.

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