We introduce a new method DOLORES for learning knowledge graph embeddings that effectively captures contextual cues and dependencies among entities and relations. First, we note that short paths on knowledge graphs comprising of chains of entities and relations can encode valuable information regarding their contextual usage. We operationalize this notion by representing knowledge graphs not as a collection of triples but as a collection of entity-relation chains, and learn embeddings for entities and relations using deep neural models that capture such contextual usage. In particular, our model is based on Bi-Directional LSTMs and learn deep representations of entities and relations from constructed entity-relation chains. We show that these representations can very easily be incorporated into existing models to significantly advance the state of the art on several knowledge graph prediction tasks like link prediction, triple classification, and missing relation type prediction (in some cases by at least 9.5%).
Human knowledge provides a formal understanding of the world. Knowledge graphs that represent structural relations between entities have become an increasingly popular research direction towards cognition and human-level intelligence. In this survey, we provide a comprehensive review on knowledge graph covering overall research topics about 1) knowledge graph representation learning, 2) knowledge acquisition and completion, 3) temporal knowledge graph, and 4) knowledge-aware applications, and summarize recent breakthroughs and perspective directions to facilitate future research. We propose a full-view categorization and new taxonomies on these topics. Knowledge graph embedding is organized from four aspects of representation space, scoring function, encoding models and auxiliary information. For knowledge acquisition, especially knowledge graph completion, embedding methods, path inference and logical rule reasoning are reviewed. We further explore several emerging topics including meta relational learning, commonsense reasoning, and temporal knowledge graphs. To facilitate future research on knowledge graphs, we also provide a curated collection of datasets and open-source libraries on different tasks. In the end, we have a thorough outlook on several promising research directions.
Knowledge graphs are important resources for many artificial intelligence tasks but often suffer from incompleteness. In this work, we propose to use pre-trained language models for knowledge graph completion. We treat triples in knowledge graphs as textual sequences and propose a novel framework named Knowledge Graph Bidirectional Encoder Representations from Transformer (KG-BERT) to model these triples. Our method takes entity and relation descriptions of a triple as input and computes scoring function of the triple with the KG-BERT language model. Experimental results on multiple benchmark knowledge graphs show that our method can achieve state-of-the-art performance in triple classification, link prediction and relation prediction tasks.
Learning embeddings of entities and relations existing in knowledge bases allows the discovery of hidden patterns in data. In this work, we examine the geometrical space's contribution to the task of knowledge base completion. We focus on the family of translational models, whose performance has been lagging, and propose a model, dubbed HyperKG, which exploits the hyperbolic space in order to better reflect the topological properties of knowledge bases. We investigate the type of regularities that our model can capture and we show that it is a prominent candidate for effectively representing a subset of Datalog rules. We empirically show, using a variety of link prediction datasets, that hyperbolic space allows to narrow down significantly the performance gap between translational and bilinear models.
The recent proliferation of knowledge graphs (KGs) coupled with incomplete or partial information, in the form of missing relations (links) between entities, has fueled a lot of research on knowledge base completion (also known as relation prediction). Several recent works suggest that convolutional neural network (CNN) based models generate richer and more expressive feature embeddings and hence also perform well on relation prediction. However, we observe that these KG embeddings treat triples independently and thus fail to cover the complex and hidden information that is inherently implicit in the local neighborhood surrounding a triple. To this effect, our paper proposes a novel attention based feature embedding that captures both entity and relation features in any given entity's neighborhood. Additionally, we also encapsulate relation clusters and multihop relations in our model. Our empirical study offers insights into the efficacy of our attention based model and we show marked performance gains in comparison to state of the art methods on all datasets.
Knowledge graph embedding aims to learn distributed representations for entities and relations, and is proven to be effective in many applications. Crossover interactions --- bi-directional effects between entities and relations --- help select related information when predicting a new triple, but haven't been formally discussed before. In this paper, we propose CrossE, a novel knowledge graph embedding which explicitly simulates crossover interactions. It not only learns one general embedding for each entity and relation as most previous methods do, but also generates multiple triple specific embeddings for both of them, named interaction embeddings. We evaluate embeddings on typical link prediction tasks and find that CrossE achieves state-of-the-art results on complex and more challenging datasets. Furthermore, we evaluate embeddings from a new perspective --- giving explanations for predicted triples, which is important for real applications. In this work, an explanation for a triple is regarded as a reliable closed-path between the head and the tail entity. Compared to other baselines, we show experimentally that CrossE, benefiting from interaction embeddings, is more capable of generating reliable explanations to support its predictions.
Knowledge graph (KG) completion aims to fill the missing facts in a KG, where a fact is represented as a triple in the form of $(subject, relation, object)$. Current KG completion models compel two-thirds of a triple provided (e.g., $subject$ and $relation$) to predict the remaining one. In this paper, we propose a new model, which uses a KG-specific multi-layer recurrent neural network (RNN) to model triples in a KG as sequences. It outperformed several state-of-the-art KG completion models on the conventional entity prediction task for many evaluation metrics, based on two benchmark datasets and a more difficult dataset. Furthermore, our model is enabled by the sequential characteristic and thus capable of predicting the whole triples only given one entity. Our experiments demonstrated that our model achieved promising performance on this new triple prediction task.
Knowledge graphs are large graph-structured databases of facts, which typically suffer from incompleteness. Link prediction is the task of inferring missing relations (links) between entities (nodes) in a knowledge graph. We approach this task using a hypernetwork architecture to generate convolutional layer filters specific to each relation and apply those filters to the subject entity embeddings. This architecture enables a trade-off between non-linear expressiveness and the number of parameters to learn. Our model simplifies the entity and relation embedding interactions introduced by the predecessor convolutional model, while outperforming all previous approaches to link prediction across all standard link prediction datasets.
Knowledge graphs, on top of entities and their relationships, contain other important elements: literals. Literals encode interesting properties (e.g. the height) of entities that are not captured by links between entities alone. Most of the existing work on embedding (or latent feature) based knowledge graph analysis focuses mainly on the relations between entities. In this work, we study the effect of incorporating literal information into existing link prediction methods. Our approach, which we name LiteralE, is an extension that can be plugged into existing latent feature methods. LiteralE merges entity embeddings with their literal information using a learnable, parametrized function, such as a simple linear or nonlinear transformation, or a multilayer neural network. We extend several popular embedding models based on LiteralE and evaluate their performance on the task of link prediction. Despite its simplicity, LiteralE proves to be an effective way to incorporate literal information into existing embedding based methods, improving their performance on different standard datasets, which we augmented with their literals and provide as testbed for further research.
A visual-relational knowledge graph (KG) is a multi-relational graph whose entities are associated with images. We introduce ImageGraph, a KG with 1,330 relation types, 14,870 entities, and 829,931 images. Visual-relational KGs lead to novel probabilistic query types where images are treated as first-class citizens. Both the prediction of relations between unseen images and multi-relational image retrieval can be formulated as query types in a visual-relational KG. We approach the problem of answering such queries with a novel combination of deep convolutional networks and models for learning knowledge graph embeddings. The resulting models can answer queries such as "How are these two unseen images related to each other?" We also explore a zero-shot learning scenario where an image of an entirely new entity is linked with multiple relations to entities of an existing KG. The multi-relational grounding of unseen entity images into a knowledge graph serves as the description of such an entity. We conduct experiments to demonstrate that the proposed deep architectures in combination with KG embedding objectives can answer the visual-relational queries efficiently and accurately.
Knowledge Graph Embedding methods aim at representing entities and relations in a knowledge base as points or vectors in a continuous vector space. Several approaches using embeddings have shown promising results on tasks such as link prediction, entity recommendation, question answering, and triplet classification. However, only a few methods can compute low-dimensional embeddings of very large knowledge bases. In this paper, we propose KG2Vec, a novel approach to Knowledge Graph Embedding based on the skip-gram model. Instead of using a predefined scoring function, we learn it relying on Long Short-Term Memories. We evaluated the goodness of our embeddings on knowledge graph completion and show that KG2Vec is comparable to the quality of the scalable state-of-the-art approaches and can process large graphs by parsing more than a hundred million triples in less than 6 hours on common hardware.