A Unitychain is a novel blockchain-like structure that drastically improves transaction scalability and security while maintaining ongoing network performance, even if participating nodes are required to perform a new Distributed Key Generation procedure for security purposes. The Unitychain structure, furthermore, enables greater parallel processing by the assignment of different network node configurations for various database and compute ranges into multiple strands of blockchains that intersect, creating a multi-helix structure, which we call a Unitychain. This thereby enables the network to further bifurcate the roles of nodes into arbitrary yet deterministic network responsibilities in order to maximize the global compute potential.
We revisit column-oriented storage and query processing techniques in the context of contemporary graph database management systems (GDBMSs). Similar to column-oriented RDBMSs, GDBMSs support read-heavy analytical workloads that however have fundamentally different data access patterns than traditional analytical workloads. We first derive a set of desiderata for optimizing storage and query processors of GDBMS based on their access patterns. We then present the design of columnar storage, compression, and query processing techniques based on these desiderata. In addition to showing direct integration of existing techniques from columnar RDBMSs, we also propose novel ones that are optimized for GDBMSs. These include a novel list-based query processor, which avoids expensive data copies of traditional block-based processors under many-to-many joins and avoids materializing adjacency lists in intermediate tuples, a new data structure we call single-indexed edge property pages and an accompanying edge ID scheme, and a new application of Jacobson's bit vector index for compressing NULL values and empty lists. We integrated our techniques into the GraphflowDB in-memory GDBMS. Through extensive experiments, we demonstrate the scalability and query performance benefits of our techniques.
In this paper, we investigate two methods that allow us to automatically create profitable DeFi trades, one well-suited to arbitrage and the other applicable to more complicated settings. We first adopt the Bellman-Ford-Moore algorithm with DEFIPOSER-ARB and then create logical DeFi protocol models for a theorem prover in DEFIPOSER-SMT. While DEFIPOSER-ARB focuses on DeFi transactions that form a cycle and performs very well for arbitrage, DEFIPOSER-SMT can detect more complicated profitable transactions. We estimate that DEFIPOSER-ARB and DEFIPOSER-SMT can generate an average weekly revenue of 191.48ETH (76,592USD) and 72.44ETH (28,976USD) respectively, with the highest transaction revenue being 81.31ETH(32,524USD) and22.40ETH (8,960USD) respectively. We further show that DEFIPOSER-SMT finds the known economic bZx attack from February 2020, which yields 0.48M USD. Our forensic investigations show that this opportunity existed for 69 days and could have yielded more revenue if exploited one day earlier. Our evaluation spans 150 days, given 96 DeFi protocol actions, and 25 assets. Looking beyond the financial gains mentioned above, forks deteriorate the blockchain consensus security, as they increase the risks of double-spending and selfish mining. We explore the implications of DEFIPOSER-ARB and DEFIPOSER-SMT on blockchain consensus. Specifically, we show that the trades identified by our tools exceed the Ethereum block reward by up to 874x. Given optimal adversarial strategies provided by a Markov Decision Process (MDP), we quantify the value threshold at which a profitable transaction qualifies as Miner ExtractableValue (MEV) and would incentivize MEV-aware miners to fork the blockchain. For instance, we find that on Ethereum, a miner with a hash rate of 10% would fork the blockchain if an MEV opportunity exceeds 4x the block reward.
It is well known that physical-layer key generation methods enable wireless devices to harvest symmetric keys by accessing the randomness offered by the wireless channels. Although two-user key generation is well understood, group secret-key (GSK) generation, wherein more than two nodes in a network generate secret-keys, still poses open problems. Recently, Manish Rao et al., have proposed the Algebraic Symmetrically Quantized GSK (A-SQGSK) protocol for a network of three nodes wherein the nodes share quantized versions of the channel realizations over algebraic rings, and then harvest a GSK. Although A-SQGSK protocol guarantees confidentiality of common randomness to an eavesdropper, we observe that the key-rate of the protocol is poor since only one channel in the network is used to harvest GSK. Identifying this limitation, in this paper, we propose an opportunistic selection method wherein more than one wireless channel is used to harvest GSKs without compromising the confidentiality feature, thereby resulting in remarkable improvements in the key-rate. Furthermore, we also propose a log-likelihood ratio (LLR) generation method for the common randomness observed at various nodes, so that the soft-values are applied to execute LDPC codes based reconciliation to reduce the bit mismatches among the nodes.
Network function virtualization (NFV) is a promising technology to make 5G networks flexible and agile. NFV decreases operators' OPEX and CAPEX by decoupling the physical hardware from the functions they perform. In NFV, users' service request can be viewed as a service function chain (SFC) consisting of several virtual network functions (VNFs) which are connected through virtual links. Resource allocation in NFV is done through a centralized authority called NFV Orchestrator (NFVO). This centralized authority suffers from some drawbacks such as single point of failure and security. Blockchain (BC) technology is able to address these problems by decentralizing resource allocation. The drawbacks of NFVO in NFV architecture and the exceptional BC characteristics to address these problems motivate us to focus on NFV resource allocation to users' SFCs without the need for an NFVO based on BC technology. To this end, we assume there are two types of users: users who send SFC requests (SFC requesting users) and users who perform mining process (miner users). For SFC requesting users, we formulate NFV resource allocation (NFV-RA) problem as a multi-objective problem to minimize the energy consumption and utilized resource cost, simultaneously.
The emerging large-scale and data-hungry algorithms require the computations to be delegated from a central server to several worker nodes. One major challenge in the distributed computations is to tackle delays and failures caused by the stragglers. To address this challenge, introducing efficient amount of redundant computations via distributed coded computation has received significant attention. Recent approaches in this area have mainly focused on introducing minimum computational redundancies to tolerate certain number of stragglers. To the best of our knowledge, the current literature lacks a unified end-to-end design in a heterogeneous setting where the workers can vary in their computation and communication capabilities. The contribution of this paper is to devise a novel framework for joint scheduling-coding, in a setting where the workers and the arrival of stream computational jobs are based on stochastic models. In our initial joint scheme, we propose a systematic framework that illustrates how to select a set of workers and how to split the computational load among the selected workers based on their differences in order to minimize the average in-order job execution delay. Through simulations, we demonstrate that the performance of our framework is dramatically better than the performance of naive method that splits the computational load uniformly among the workers, and it is close to the ideal performance.
The Internet-of-Things (IoT) is an emerging and cognitive technology which connects a massive number of smart physical devices with virtual objects operating in diverse platforms through the internet. IoT is increasingly being implemented in distributed settings, making footprints in almost every sector of our life. Unfortunately, for healthcare systems, the entities connected to the IoT networks are exposed to an unprecedented level of security threats. Relying on a huge volume of sensitive and personal data, IoT healthcare systems are facing unique challenges in protecting data security and privacy. Although blockchain has posed to be the solution in this scenario thanks to its inherent distributed ledger technology (DLT), it suffers from major setbacks of increasing storage and computation requirements with the network size. This paper proposes a holochain-based security and privacy-preserving framework for IoT healthcare systems that overcomes these challenges and is particularly suited for resource constrained IoT scenarios. The performance and thorough security analyses demonstrate that a holochain-based IoT healthcare system is significantly better compared to blockchain and other existing systems.
Current network access infrastructures are characterized by heterogeneity, low latency, high throughput, and high computational capability, enabling massive concurrent connections and various services. Unfortunately, this design does not pay significant attention to mobile services in underserved areas. In this context, the use of aerial radio access networks (ARANs) is a promising strategy to complement existing terrestrial communication systems. Involving airborne components such as unmanned aerial vehicles, drones, and satellites, ARANs can quickly establish a flexible access infrastructure on demand. ARANs are expected to support the development of seamless mobile communication systems toward a comprehensive sixth-generation (6G) global access infrastructure. This paper provides an overview of recent studies regarding ARANs in the literature. First, we investigate related work to identify areas for further exploration in terms of recent knowledge advancements and analyses. Second, we define the scope and methodology of this study. Then, we describe ARAN architecture and its fundamental features for the development of 6G networks. In particular, we analyze the system model from several perspectives, including transmission propagation, energy consumption, communication latency, and network mobility. Furthermore, we introduce technologies that enable the success of ARAN implementations in terms of energy replenishment, operational management, and data delivery. Subsequently, we discuss application scenarios envisioned for these technologies. Finally, we highlight ongoing research efforts and trends toward 6G ARANs.
Sharding is the prevalent approach to breaking the trilemma of simultaneously achieving decentralization, security, and scalability in traditional blockchain systems, which are implemented as replicated state machines relying on atomic broadcast for consensus on an immutable chain of valid transactions. Sharding is to be understood broadly as techniques for dynamically partitioning nodes in a blockchain system into subsets (shards) that perform storage, communication, and computation tasks without fine-grained synchronization with each other. Despite much recent research on sharding blockchains, much remains to be explored in the design space of these systems. Towards that aim, we conduct a systematic analysis of existing sharding blockchain systems and derive a conceptual decomposition of their architecture into functional components and the underlying assumptions about system models and attackers they are built on. The functional components identified are node selection, epoch randomness, node assignment, intra-shard consensus, cross-shard transaction processing, shard reconfiguration, and motivation mechanism. We describe interfaces, functionality, and properties of each component and show how they compose into a sharding blockchain system. For each component, we systematically review existing approaches, identify potential and open problems, and propose future research directions. We focus on potential security attacks and performance problems, including system throughput and latency concerns such as confirmation delays. We believe our modular architectural decomposition and in-depth analysis of each component, based on a comprehensive literature study, provides a systematic basis for conceptualizing state-of-the-art sharding blockchain systems, proving or improving security and performance properties of components, and developing new sharding blockchain system designs.
Bioinformatics pipelines depend on shared POSIX filesystems for its input, output and intermediate data storage. Containerization makes it more difficult for the workloads to access the shared file systems. In our previous study, we were able to run both ML and non-ML pipelines on Kubeflow successfully. However, the storage solutions were complex and less optimal. This is because there are no established resource types to represent the concept of data source on Kubernetes. More and more applications are running on Kubernetes for batch processing. End users are burdened with configuring and optimising the data access, which is what we have experienced before. In this article, we are introducing a new concept of Dataset and its corresponding resource as a native Kubernetes object. We have leveraged the Dataset Lifecycle Framework which takes care of all the low-level details about data access in Kubernetes pods. Its pluggable architecture is designed for the development of caching, scheduling and governance plugins. Together, they manage the entire lifecycle of the custom resource Dataset. We use Dataset Lifecycle Framework to serve data from object stores to both ML and non-ML pipelines running on Kubeflow. With DLF, we make training data fed into ML models directly without being downloaded to the local disks, which makes the input scalable. We have enhanced the durability of training metadata by storing it into a dataset, which also simplifies the set up of the Tensorboard, separated from the notebook server. For the non-ML pipeline, we have simplified the 1000 Genome Project pipeline with datasets injected into the pipeline dynamically. In addition, our preliminary results indicate that the pluggable caching mechanism can improve the performance significantly.
Recently introduced generative adversarial network (GAN) has been shown numerous promising results to generate realistic samples. The essential task of GAN is to control the features of samples generated from a random distribution. While the current GAN structures, such as conditional GAN, successfully generate samples with desired major features, they often fail to produce detailed features that bring specific differences among samples. To overcome this limitation, here we propose a controllable GAN (ControlGAN) structure. By separating a feature classifier from a discriminator, the generator of ControlGAN is designed to learn generating synthetic samples with the specific detailed features. Evaluated with multiple image datasets, ControlGAN shows a power to generate improved samples with well-controlled features. Furthermore, we demonstrate that ControlGAN can generate intermediate features and opposite features for interpolated and extrapolated input labels that are not used in the training process. It implies that ControlGAN can significantly contribute to the variety of generated samples.