We propose a novel data augmentation method for labeled sentences called conditional BERT contextual augmentation. Data augmentation methods are often applied to prevent overfitting and improve generalization of deep neural network models. Recently proposed contextual augmentation augments labeled sentences by randomly replacing words with more varied substitutions predicted by language model. BERT demonstrates that a deep bidirectional language model is more powerful than either an unidirectional language model or the shallow concatenation of a forward and backward model. We retrofit BERT to conditional BERT by introducing a new conditional masked language model\footnote{The term "conditional masked language model" appeared once in original BERT paper, which indicates context-conditional, is equivalent to term "masked language model". In our paper, "conditional masked language model" indicates we apply extra label-conditional constraint to the "masked language model".} task. The well trained conditional BERT can be applied to enhance contextual augmentation. Experiments on six various different text classification tasks show that our method can be easily applied to both convolutional or recurrent neural networks classifier to obtain obvious improvement.

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BERT全称Bidirectional Encoder Representations from Transformers,是预训练语言表示的方法,可以在大型文本语料库(如维基百科)上训练通用的“语言理解”模型,然后将该模型用于下游NLP任务,比如机器翻译、问答。

Language model based pre-trained models such as BERT have provided significant gains across different NLP tasks. In this paper, we study different types of pre-trained transformer based models such as auto-regressive models (GPT-2), auto-encoder models (BERT), and seq2seq models (BART) for conditional data augmentation. We show that prepending the class labels to text sequences provides a simple yet effective way to condition the pre-trained models for data augmentation. On three classification benchmarks, pre-trained Seq2Seq model outperforms other models. Further, we explore how different pre-trained model based data augmentation differs in-terms of data diversity, and how well such methods preserve the class-label information.

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Modern neural network training relies heavily on data augmentation for improved generalization. After the initial success of label-preserving augmentations, there has been a recent surge of interest in label-perturbing approaches, which combine features and labels across training samples to smooth the learned decision surface. In this paper, we propose a new augmentation method that leverages the first and second moments extracted and re-injected by feature normalization. We replace the moments of the learned features of one training image by those of another, and also interpolate the target labels. As our approach is fast, operates entirely in feature space, and mixes different signals than prior methods, one can effectively combine it with existing augmentation methods. We demonstrate its efficacy across benchmark data sets in computer vision, speech, and natural language processing, where it consistently improves the generalization performance of highly competitive baseline networks.

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In this work, we study the problem of training deep networks for semantic image segmentation using only a fraction of annotated images, which may significantly reduce human annotation efforts. Particularly, we propose a strategy that exploits the unpaired image style transfer capabilities of CycleGAN in semi-supervised segmentation. Unlike recent works using adversarial learning for semi-supervised segmentation, we enforce cycle consistency to learn a bidirectional mapping between unpaired images and segmentation masks. This adds an unsupervised regularization effect that boosts the segmentation performance when annotated data is limited. Experiments on three different public segmentation benchmarks (PASCAL VOC 2012, Cityscapes and ACDC) demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. The proposed model achieves 2-4% of improvement with respect to the baseline and outperforms recent approaches for this task, particularly in low labeled data regime.

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Despite much success, deep learning generally does not perform well with small labeled training sets. In these scenarios, data augmentation has shown much promise in alleviating the need for more labeled data, but it so far has mostly been applied in supervised settings and achieved limited gains. In this work, we propose to apply data augmentation to unlabeled data in a semi-supervised learning setting. Our method, named Unsupervised Data Augmentation or UDA, encourages the model predictions to be consistent between an unlabeled example and an augmented unlabeled example. Unlike previous methods that use random noise such as Gaussian noise or dropout noise, UDA has a small twist in that it makes use of harder and more realistic noise generated by state-of-the-art data augmentation methods. This small twist leads to substantial improvements on six language tasks and three vision tasks even when the labeled set is extremely small. For example, on the IMDb text classification dataset, with only 20 labeled examples, UDA achieves an error rate of 4.20, outperforming the state-of-the-art model trained on 25,000 labeled examples. On standard semi-supervised learning benchmarks CIFAR-10 and SVHN, UDA outperforms all previous approaches and achieves an error rate of 2.7% on CIFAR-10 with only 4,000 examples and an error rate of 2.85% on SVHN with only 250 examples, nearly matching the performance of models trained on the full sets which are one or two orders of magnitude larger. UDA also works well on large-scale datasets such as ImageNet. When trained with 10% of the labeled set, UDA improves the top-1/top-5 accuracy from 55.1/77.3% to 68.7/88.5%. For the full ImageNet with 1.3M extra unlabeled data, UDA further pushes the performance from 78.3/94.4% to 79.0/94.5%.

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We introduce a new language representation model called BERT, which stands for Bidirectional Encoder Representations from Transformers. Unlike recent language representation models, BERT is designed to pre-train deep bidirectional representations from unlabeled text by jointly conditioning on both left and right context in all layers. As a result, the pre-trained BERT model can be fine-tuned with just one additional output layer to create state-of-the-art models for a wide range of tasks, such as question answering and language inference, without substantial task-specific architecture modifications. BERT is conceptually simple and empirically powerful. It obtains new state-of-the-art results on eleven natural language processing tasks, including pushing the GLUE score to 80.5% (7.7% point absolute improvement), MultiNLI accuracy to 86.7% (4.6% absolute improvement), SQuAD v1.1 question answering Test F1 to 93.2 (1.5 point absolute improvement) and SQuAD v2.0 Test F1 to 83.1 (5.1 point absolute improvement).

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In this paper, we propose a unified panoptic segmentation network (UPSNet) for tackling the newly proposed panoptic segmentation task. On top of a single backbone residual network, we first design a deformable convolution based semantic segmentation head and a Mask R-CNN style instance segmentation head which solve these two subtasks simultaneously. More importantly, we introduce a parameter-free panoptic head which solves the panoptic segmentation via pixel-wise classification. It first leverages the logits from the previous two heads and then innovatively expands the representation for enabling prediction of an extra unknown class which helps better resolve the conflicts between semantic and instance segmentation. Additionally, it handles the challenge caused by the varying number of instances and permits back propagation to the bottom modules in an end-to-end manner. Extensive experimental results on Cityscapes, COCO and our internal dataset demonstrate that our UPSNet achieves state-of-the-art performance with much faster inference.

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The classification of acoustic environments allows for machines to better understand the auditory world around them. The use of deep learning in order to teach machines to discriminate between different rooms is a new area of research. Similarly to other learning tasks, this task suffers from the high-dimensionality and the limited availability of training data. Data augmentation methods have proven useful in addressing this issue in the tasks of sound event detection and scene classification. This paper proposes a method for data augmentation for the task of room classification from reverberant speech. Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) are trained that generate artificial data as if they were measured in real rooms. This provides additional training examples to the classifiers without the need for any additional data collection, which is time-consuming and often impractical. A representation of acoustic environments is proposed, which is used to train the GANs. The representation is based on a sparse model for the early reflections, a stochastic model for the reverberant tail and a mixing mechanism between the two. In the experiments shown, the proposed data augmentation method increases the test accuracy of a CNN-RNN room classifier from 89.4% to 95.5%.

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Recent works showed that Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) can be successfully applied in unsupervised domain adaptation, where, given a labeled source dataset and an unlabeled target dataset, the goal is to train powerful classifiers for the target samples. In particular, it was shown that a GAN objective function can be used to learn target features indistinguishable from the source ones. In this work, we extend this framework by (i) forcing the learned feature extractor to be domain-invariant, and (ii) training it through data augmentation in the feature space, namely performing feature augmentation. While data augmentation in the image space is a well established technique in deep learning, feature augmentation has not yet received the same level of attention. We accomplish it by means of a feature generator trained by playing the GAN minimax game against source features. Results show that both enforcing domain-invariance and performing feature augmentation lead to superior or comparable performance to state-of-the-art results in several unsupervised domain adaptation benchmarks.

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Weakly supervised instance segmentation with image-level labels, instead of expensive pixel-level masks, remains unexplored. In this paper, we tackle this challenging problem by exploiting class peak responses to enable a classification network for instance mask extraction. With image labels supervision only, CNN classifiers in a fully convolutional manner can produce class response maps, which specify classification confidence at each image location. We observed that local maximums, i.e., peaks, in a class response map typically correspond to strong visual cues residing inside each instance. Motivated by this, we first design a process to stimulate peaks to emerge from a class response map. The emerged peaks are then back-propagated and effectively mapped to highly informative regions of each object instance, such as instance boundaries. We refer to the above maps generated from class peak responses as Peak Response Maps (PRMs). PRMs provide a fine-detailed instance-level representation, which allows instance masks to be extracted even with some off-the-shelf methods. To the best of our knowledge, we for the first time report results for the challenging image-level supervised instance segmentation task. Extensive experiments show that our method also boosts weakly supervised pointwise localization as well as semantic segmentation performance, and reports state-of-the-art results on popular benchmarks, including PASCAL VOC 2012 and MS COCO.

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Image segmentation is considered to be one of the critical tasks in hyperspectral remote sensing image processing. Recently, convolutional neural network (CNN) has established itself as a powerful model in segmentation and classification by demonstrating excellent performances. The use of a graphical model such as a conditional random field (CRF) contributes further in capturing contextual information and thus improving the segmentation performance. In this paper, we propose a method to segment hyperspectral images by considering both spectral and spatial information via a combined framework consisting of CNN and CRF. We use multiple spectral cubes to learn deep features using CNN, and then formulate deep CRF with CNN-based unary and pairwise potential functions to effectively extract the semantic correlations between patches consisting of three-dimensional data cubes. Effective piecewise training is applied in order to avoid the computationally expensive iterative CRF inference. Furthermore, we introduce a deep deconvolution network that improves the segmentation masks. We also introduce a new dataset and experimented our proposed method on it along with several widely adopted benchmark datasets to evaluate the effectiveness of our method. By comparing our results with those from several state-of-the-art models, we show the promising potential of our method.

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