Aspect-based sentiment analysis (ABSA), which aims to identify fine-grained opinion polarity towards a specific aspect, is a challenging subtask of sentiment analysis (SA). In this paper, we construct an auxiliary sentence from the aspect and convert ABSA to a sentence-pair classification task, such as question answering (QA) and natural language inference (NLI). We fine-tune the pre-trained model from BERT and achieve new state-of-the-art results on SentiHood and SemEval-2014 Task 4 datasets.

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Aspect-term level sentiment analysis (ATSA) is a fine-grained task in sentiment classification. It aims at extracting and summarizing the sentiment polarity towards a given aspect phrase from a sentence. Most existing studies combined various neural network models with a delicately carved attention mechanism to generate refined representations of sentences for better predictions. However, they were inadequate to capture correlations between aspects and sentiments. Moreover, the annotated aspect term might be unavailable in real-world scenarios which may challenge the existing methods to give correct forecasting. In this paper, we propose a capsule network based model named CAPSAR (CAPsule network with Sentiment-Aspect Reconstruction) to improve aspect-term level sentiment analysis. CAPSAR adopts a hierarchical structure of capsules and learns interactive patterns between aspects and sentiments through packaged sentiment-aspect reconstruction. Capsules in CAPSAR are capable of communicating with other capsules through a sharing-weight routing algorithm. Experiments on three ATSA benchmarks demonstrate the superiority of our model, and CAPSAR can detect the potential aspect terms from sentences by de-capsulizing the vectors in capsules when aspect terms are unknown.

Aspect-based sentiment analysis (ABSA) is to predict the sentiment polarity towards a particular aspect in a sentence. Recently, this task has been widely addressed by the neural attention mechanism, which computes attention weights to softly select words for generating aspect-specific sentence representations. The attention is expected to concentrate on opinion words for accurate sentiment prediction. However, attention is prone to be distracted by noisy or misleading words, or opinion words from other aspects. In this paper, we propose an alternative hard-selection approach, which determines the start and end positions of the opinion snippet, and selects the words between these two positions for sentiment prediction. Specifically, we learn deep associations between the sentence and aspect, and the long-term dependencies within the sentence by leveraging the pre-trained BERT model. We further detect the opinion snippet by self-critical reinforcement learning. Especially, experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of our method and prove that our hard-selection approach outperforms soft-selection approaches when handling multi-aspect sentences.

Recently, a variety of model designs and methods have blossomed in the context of the sentiment analysis domain. However, there is still a lack of wide and comprehensive studies of aspect-based sentiment analysis (ABSA). We want to fill this gap and propose a comparison with ablation analysis of aspect term extraction using various text embedding methods. We particularly focused on architectures based on long short-term memory (LSTM) with optional conditional random field (CRF) enhancement using different pre-trained word embeddings. Moreover, we analyzed the influence on the performance of extending the word vectorization step with character embedding. The experimental results on SemEval datasets revealed that not only does bi-directional long short-term memory (BiLSTM) outperform regular LSTM, but also word embedding coverage and its source highly affect aspect detection performance. An additional CRF layer consistently improves the results as well.

Sentiment analysis is a widely studied NLP task where the goal is to determine opinions, emotions, and evaluations of users towards a product, an entity or a service that they are reviewing. One of the biggest challenges for sentiment analysis is that it is highly language dependent. Word embeddings, sentiment lexicons, and even annotated data are language specific. Further, optimizing models for each language is very time consuming and labor intensive especially for recurrent neural network models. From a resource perspective, it is very challenging to collect data for different languages. In this paper, we look for an answer to the following research question: can a sentiment analysis model trained on a language be reused for sentiment analysis in other languages, Russian, Spanish, Turkish, and Dutch, where the data is more limited? Our goal is to build a single model in the language with the largest dataset available for the task, and reuse it for languages that have limited resources. For this purpose, we train a sentiment analysis model using recurrent neural networks with reviews in English. We then translate reviews in other languages and reuse this model to evaluate the sentiments. Experimental results show that our robust approach of single model trained on English reviews statistically significantly outperforms the baselines in several different languages.

Most existing sentiment analysis approaches heavily rely on a large amount of labeled data that usually involve time-consuming and error-prone manual annotations. The distribution of this labeled data is significantly imbalanced among languages, e.g., more English texts are labeled than texts in other languages, which presents a major challenge to cross-lingual sentiment analysis. There have been several cross-lingual representation learning techniques that transfer the knowledge learned from a language with abundant labeled examples to another language with much fewer labels. Their performance, however, is usually limited due to the imperfect quality of machine translation and the scarce signal that bridges two languages. In this paper, we employ emojis, a ubiquitous and emotional language, as a new bridge for sentiment analysis across languages. Specifically, we propose a semi-supervised representation learning approach through the task of emoji prediction to learn cross-lingual representations of text that can capture both semantic and sentiment information. The learned representations are then utilized to facilitate cross-lingual sentiment classification. We demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of our approach on a representative Amazon review data set that covers three languages and three domains.

We propose a novel approach to multimodal sentiment analysis using deep neural networks combining visual analysis and natural language processing. Our goal is different than the standard sentiment analysis goal of predicting whether a sentence expresses positive or negative sentiment; instead, we aim to infer the latent emotional state of the user. Thus, we focus on predicting the emotion word tags attached by users to their Tumblr posts, treating these as "self-reported emotions." We demonstrate that our multimodal model combining both text and image features outperforms separate models based solely on either images or text. Our model's results are interpretable, automatically yielding sensible word lists associated with emotions. We explore the structure of emotions implied by our model and compare it to what has been posited in the psychology literature, and validate our model on a set of images that have been used in psychology studies. Finally, our work also provides a useful tool for the growing academic study of images - both photographs and memes - on social networks.

Aspect based sentiment analysis (ABSA) can provide more detailed information than general sentiment analysis, because it aims to predict the sentiment polarities of the given aspects or entities in text. We summarize previous approaches into two subtasks: aspect-category sentiment analysis (ACSA) and aspect-term sentiment analysis (ATSA). Most previous approaches employ long short-term memory and attention mechanisms to predict the sentiment polarity of the concerned targets, which are often complicated and need more training time. We propose a model based on convolutional neural networks and gating mechanisms, which is more accurate and efficient. First, the novel Gated Tanh-ReLU Units can selectively output the sentiment features according to the given aspect or entity. The architecture is much simpler than attention layer used in the existing models. Second, the computations of our model could be easily parallelized during training, because convolutional layers do not have time dependency as in LSTM layers, and gating units also work independently. The experiments on SemEval datasets demonstrate the efficiency and effectiveness of our models.

Script event prediction requires a model to predict the subsequent event given an existing event context. Previous models based on event pairs or event chains cannot make full use of dense event connections, which may limit their capability of event prediction. To remedy this, we propose constructing an event graph to better utilize the event network information for script event prediction. In particular, we first extract narrative event chains from large quantities of news corpus, and then construct a narrative event evolutionary graph (NEEG) based on the extracted chains. NEEG can be seen as a knowledge base that describes event evolutionary principles and patterns. To solve the inference problem on NEEG, we present a scaled graph neural network (SGNN) to model event interactions and learn better event representations. Instead of computing the representations on the whole graph, SGNN processes only the concerned nodes each time, which makes our model feasible to large-scale graphs. By comparing the similarity between input context event representations and candidate event representations, we can choose the most reasonable subsequent event. Experimental results on widely used New York Times corpus demonstrate that our model significantly outperforms state-of-the-art baseline methods, by using standard multiple choice narrative cloze evaluation.

Sentiment analysis is a key component in various text mining applications. Numerous sentiment classification techniques, including conventional and deep learning-based methods, have been proposed in the literature. In most existing methods, a high-quality training set is assumed to be given. Nevertheless, constructing a high-quality training set that consists of highly accurate labels is challenging in real applications. This difficulty stems from the fact that text samples usually contain complex sentiment representations, and their annotation is subjective. We address this challenge in this study by leveraging a new labeling strategy and utilizing a two-level long short-term memory network to construct a sentiment classifier. Lexical cues are useful for sentiment analysis, and they have been utilized in conventional studies. For example, polar and privative words play important roles in sentiment analysis. A new encoding strategy, that is, $\rho$-hot encoding, is proposed to alleviate the drawbacks of one-hot encoding and thus effectively incorporate useful lexical cues. We compile three Chinese data sets on the basis of our label strategy and proposed methodology. Experiments on the three data sets demonstrate that the proposed method outperforms state-of-the-art algorithms.

Sentiment Analysis (SA) is a major field of study in natural language processing, computational linguistics and information retrieval. Interest in SA has been constantly growing in both academia and industry over the recent years. Moreover, there is an increasing need for generating appropriate resources and datasets in particular for low resource languages including Persian. These datasets play an important role in designing and developing appropriate opinion mining platforms using supervised, semi-supervised or unsupervised methods. In this paper, we outline the entire process of developing a manually annotated sentiment corpus, SentiPers, which covers formal and informal written contemporary Persian. To the best of our knowledge, SentiPers is a unique sentiment corpus with such a rich annotation in three different levels including document-level, sentence-level, and entity/aspect-level for Persian. The corpus contains more than 26000 sentences of users opinions from digital product domain and benefits from special characteristics such as quantifying the positiveness or negativity of an opinion through assigning a number within a specific range to any given sentence. Furthermore, we present statistics on various components of our corpus as well as studying the inter-annotator agreement among the annotators. Finally, some of the challenges that we faced during the annotation process will be discussed as well.

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