We introduce an effective model to overcome the problem of mode collapse when training Generative Adversarial Networks (GAN). Firstly, we propose a new generator objective that finds it better to tackle mode collapse. And, we apply an independent Autoencoders (AE) to constrain the generator and consider its reconstructed samples as "real" samples to slow down the convergence of discriminator that enables to reduce the gradient vanishing problem and stabilize the model. Secondly, from mappings between latent and data spaces provided by AE, we further regularize AE by the relative distance between the latent and data samples to explicitly prevent the generator falling into mode collapse setting. This idea comes when we find a new way to visualize the mode collapse on MNIST dataset. To the best of our knowledge, our method is the first to propose and apply successfully the relative distance of latent and data samples for stabilizing GAN. Thirdly, our proposed model, namely Generative Adversarial Autoencoder Networks (GAAN), is stable and has suffered from neither gradient vanishing nor mode collapse issues, as empirically demonstrated on synthetic, MNIST, MNIST-1K, CelebA and CIFAR-10 datasets. Experimental results show that our method can approximate well multi-modal distribution and achieve better results than state-of-the-art methods on these benchmark datasets. Our model implementation is published here: https://github.com/tntrung/gaan

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模式崩溃(Mode collapse):生成器产生单个或有限的模式。理想情况下,生成模型应该能够生成10个数字,如果只能生成其中的几个,而错失其它的模式,则我们称这种现象为模式崩溃(mode collapse)。

In this paper we study the convergence of generative adversarial networks (GANs) from the perspective of the informativeness of the gradient of the optimal discriminative function. We show that GANs without restriction on the discriminative function space commonly suffer from the problem that the gradient produced by the discriminator is uninformative to guide the generator. By contrast, Wasserstein GAN (WGAN), where the discriminative function is restricted to $1$-Lipschitz, does not suffer from such a gradient uninformativeness problem. We further show in the paper that the model with a compact dual form of Wasserstein distance, where the Lipschitz condition is relaxed, also suffers from this issue. This implies the importance of Lipschitz condition and motivates us to study the general formulation of GANs with Lipschitz constraint, which leads to a new family of GANs that we call Lipschitz GANs (LGANs). We show that LGANs guarantee the existence and uniqueness of the optimal discriminative function as well as the existence of a unique Nash equilibrium. We prove that LGANs are generally capable of eliminating the gradient uninformativeness problem. According to our empirical analysis, LGANs are more stable and generate consistently higher quality samples compared with WGAN.

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In this article, we introduce a new mode for training Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs). Rather than minimizing the distance of evidence distribution $\tilde{p}(x)$ and the generative distribution $q(x)$, we minimize the distance of $\tilde{p}(x_r)q(x_f)$ and $\tilde{p}(x_f)q(x_r)$. This adversarial pattern can be interpreted as a Turing test in GANs. It allows us to use information of real samples during training generator and accelerates the whole training procedure. We even find that just proportionally increasing the size of discriminator and generator, it succeeds on 256x256 resolution without adjusting hyperparameters carefully.

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Generative Adversarial networks (GANs) have obtained remarkable success in many unsupervised learning tasks and unarguably, clustering is an important unsupervised learning problem. While one can potentially exploit the latent-space back-projection in GANs to cluster, we demonstrate that the cluster structure is not retained in the GAN latent space. In this paper, we propose ClusterGAN as a new mechanism for clustering using GANs. By sampling latent variables from a mixture of one-hot encoded variables and continuous latent variables, coupled with an inverse network (which projects the data to the latent space) trained jointly with a clustering specific loss, we are able to achieve clustering in the latent space. Our results show a remarkable phenomenon that GANs can preserve latent space interpolation across categories, even though the discriminator is never exposed to such vectors. We compare our results with various clustering baselines and demonstrate superior performance on both synthetic and real datasets.

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In this paper, we propose the Self-Attention Generative Adversarial Network (SAGAN) which allows attention-driven, long-range dependency modeling for image generation tasks. Traditional convolutional GANs generate high-resolution details as a function of only spatially local points in lower-resolution feature maps. In SAGAN, details can be generated using cues from all feature locations. Moreover, the discriminator can check that highly detailed features in distant portions of the image are consistent with each other. Furthermore, recent work has shown that generator conditioning affects GAN performance. Leveraging this insight, we apply spectral normalization to the GAN generator and find that this improves training dynamics. The proposed SAGAN achieves the state-of-the-art results, boosting the best published Inception score from 36.8 to 52.52 and reducing Frechet Inception distance from 27.62 to 18.65 on the challenging ImageNet dataset. Visualization of the attention layers shows that the generator leverages neighborhoods that correspond to object shapes rather than local regions of fixed shape.

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Network embedding has become a hot research topic recently which can provide low-dimensional feature representations for many machine learning applications. Current work focuses on either (1) whether the embedding is designed as an unsupervised learning task by explicitly preserving the structural connectivity in the network, or (2) whether the embedding is a by-product during the supervised learning of a specific discriminative task in a deep neural network. In this paper, we focus on bridging the gap of the two lines of the research. We propose to adapt the Generative Adversarial model to perform network embedding, in which the generator is trying to generate vertex pairs, while the discriminator tries to distinguish the generated vertex pairs from real connections (edges) in the network. Wasserstein-1 distance is adopted to train the generator to gain better stability. We develop three variations of models, including GANE which applies cosine similarity, GANE-O1 which preserves the first-order proximity, and GANE-O2 which tries to preserves the second-order proximity of the network in the low-dimensional embedded vector space. We later prove that GANE-O2 has the same objective function as GANE-O1 when negative sampling is applied to simplify the training process in GANE-O2. Experiments with real-world network datasets demonstrate that our models constantly outperform state-of-the-art solutions with significant improvements on precision in link prediction, as well as on visualizations and accuracy in clustering tasks.

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We present Generative Adversarial Capsule Network (CapsuleGAN), a framework that uses capsule networks (CapsNets) instead of the standard convolutional neural networks (CNNs) as discriminators within the generative adversarial network (GAN) setting, while modeling image data. We provide guidelines for designing CapsNet discriminators and the updated GAN objective function, which incorporates the CapsNet margin loss, for training CapsuleGAN models. We show that CapsuleGAN outperforms convolutional-GAN at modeling image data distribution on the MNIST dataset of handwritten digits, evaluated on the generative adversarial metric and at semi-supervised image classification.

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Class labels have been empirically shown useful in improving the sample quality of generative adversarial nets (GANs). In this paper, we mathematically study the properties of the current variants of GANs that make use of class label information. With class aware gradient and cross-entropy decomposition, we reveal how class labels and associated losses influence GAN's training. Based on that, we propose Activation Maximization Generative Adversarial Networks (AM-GAN) as an advanced solution. Comprehensive experiments have been conducted to validate our analysis and evaluate the effectiveness of our solution, where AM-GAN outperforms other strong baselines and achieves state-of-the-art Inception Score (8.91) on CIFAR-10. In addition, we demonstrate that, with the Inception ImageNet classifier, Inception Score mainly tracks the diversity of the generator, and there is, however, no reliable evidence that it can reflect the true sample quality. We thus propose a new metric, called AM Score, to provide more accurate estimation on the sample quality. Our proposed model also outperforms the baseline methods in the new metric.

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Despite of the success of Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) for image generation tasks, the trade-off between image diversity and visual quality are an well-known issue. Conventional techniques achieve either visual quality or image diversity; the improvement in one side is often the result of sacrificing the degradation in the other side. In this paper, we aim to achieve both simultaneously by improving the stability of training GANs. A key idea of the proposed approach is to implicitly regularizing the discriminator using a representative feature. For that, this representative feature is extracted from the data distribution, and then transferred to the discriminator for enforcing slow updates of the gradient. Consequently, the entire training process is stabilized because the learning curve of discriminator varies slowly. Based on extensive evaluation, we demonstrate that our approach improves the visual quality and diversity of state-of-the art GANs.

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Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) convergence in a high-resolution setting with a computational constrain of GPU memory capacity (from 12GB to 24 GB) has been beset with difficulty due to the known lack of convergence rate stability. In order to boost network convergence of DCGAN (Deep Convolutional Generative Adversarial Networks) and achieve good-looking high-resolution results we propose a new layered network structure, HDCGAN, that incorporates current state-of-the-art techniques for this effect. A novel dataset, Curt\'o Zarza (CZ), containing human faces from different ethnical groups in a wide variety of illumination conditions and image resolutions is introduced. We conduct extensive experiments on CelebA and CZ.

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Deep neural networks (DNNs) have been found to be vulnerable to adversarial examples resulting from adding small-magnitude perturbations to inputs. Such adversarial examples can mislead DNNs to produce adversary-selected results. Different attack strategies have been proposed to generate adversarial examples, but how to produce them with high perceptual quality and more efficiently requires more research efforts. In this paper, we propose AdvGAN to generate adversarial examples with generative adversarial networks (GANs), which can learn and approximate the distribution of original instances. For AdvGAN, once the generator is trained, it can generate adversarial perturbations efficiently for any instance, so as to potentially accelerate adversarial training as defenses. We apply AdvGAN in both semi-whitebox and black-box attack settings. In semi-whitebox attacks, there is no need to access the original target model after the generator is trained, in contrast to traditional white-box attacks. In black-box attacks, we dynamically train a distilled model for the black-box model and optimize the generator accordingly. Adversarial examples generated by AdvGAN on different target models have high attack success rate under state-of-the-art defenses compared to other attacks. Our attack has placed the first with 92.76% accuracy on a public MNIST black-box attack challenge.

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