In recent years, the biggest advances in major Computer Vision tasks, such as object recognition, handwritten-digit identification, facial recognition, and many others., have all come through the use of Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs). Similarly, in the domain of Natural Language Processing, Recurrent Neural Networks (RNNs), and Long Short Term Memory networks (LSTMs) in particular, have been crucial to some of the biggest breakthroughs in performance for tasks such as machine translation, part-of-speech tagging, sentiment analysis, and many others. These individual advances have greatly benefited tasks even at the intersection of NLP and Computer Vision, and inspired by this success, we studied some existing neural image captioning models that have proven to work well. In this work, we study some existing captioning models that provide near state-of-the-art performances, and try to enhance one such model. We also present a simple image captioning model that makes use of a CNN, an LSTM, and the beam search1 algorithm, and study its performance based on various qualitative and quantitative metrics.
The recent advances of deep learning in both computer vision (CV) and natural language processing (NLP) provide us a new way of understanding semantics, by which we can deal with more challenging tasks such as automatic description generation from natural images. In this challenge, the encoder-decoder framework has achieved promising performance when a convolutional neural network (CNN) is used as image encoder and a recurrent neural network (RNN) as decoder. In this paper, we introduce a sequential guiding network that guides the decoder during word generation. The new model is an extension of the encoder-decoder framework with attention that has an additional guiding long short-term memory (LSTM) and can be trained in an end-to-end manner by using image/descriptions pairs. We validate our approach by conducting extensive experiments on a benchmark dataset, i.e., MS COCO Captions. The proposed model achieves significant improvement comparing to the other state-of-the-art deep learning models.
In this paper, we propose Generative Adversarial Network (GAN) architectures that use Capsule Networks for image-synthesis. Based on the principal of positional-equivariance of features, Capsule Network's ability to encode spatial relationships between the features of the image helps it become a more powerful critic in comparison to Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) used in current architectures for image synthesis. Our proposed GAN architectures learn the data manifold much faster and therefore, synthesize visually accurate images in significantly lesser number of training samples and training epochs in comparison to GANs and its variants that use CNNs. Apart from analyzing the quantitative results corresponding the images generated by different architectures, we also explore the reasons for the lower coverage and diversity explored by the GAN architectures that use CNN critics.
Recently it has shown that the policy-gradient methods for reinforcement learning have been utilized to train deep end-to-end systems on natural language processing tasks. What's more, with the complexity of understanding image content and diverse ways of describing image content in natural language, image captioning has been a challenging problem to deal with. To the best of our knowledge, most state-of-the-art methods follow a pattern of sequential model, such as recurrent neural networks (RNN). However, in this paper, we propose a novel architecture for image captioning with deep reinforcement learning to optimize image captioning tasks. We utilize two networks called "policy network" and "value network" to collaboratively generate the captions of images. The experiments are conducted on Microsoft COCO dataset, and the experimental results have verified the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Image captioning is a challenging task that combines the field of computer vision and natural language processing. A variety of approaches have been proposed to achieve the goal of automatically describing an image, and recurrent neural network (RNN) or long-short term memory (LSTM) based models dominate this field. However, RNNs or LSTMs cannot be calculated in parallel and ignore the underlying hierarchical structure of a sentence. In this paper, we propose a framework that only employs convolutional neural networks (CNNs) to generate captions. Owing to parallel computing, our basic model is around 3 times faster than NIC (an LSTM-based model) during training time, while also providing better results. We conduct extensive experiments on MSCOCO and investigate the influence of the model width and depth. Compared with LSTM-based models that apply similar attention mechanisms, our proposed models achieves comparable scores of BLEU-1,2,3,4 and METEOR, and higher scores of CIDEr. We also test our model on the paragraph annotation dataset, and get higher CIDEr score compared with hierarchical LSTMs
Answering visual questions need acquire daily common knowledge and model the semantic connection among different parts in images, which is too difficult for VQA systems to learn from images with the only supervision from answers. Meanwhile, image captioning systems with beam search strategy tend to generate similar captions and fail to diversely describe images. To address the aforementioned issues, we present a system to have these two tasks compensate with each other, which is capable of jointly producing image captions and answering visual questions. In particular, we utilize question and image features to generate question-related captions and use the generated captions as additional features to provide new knowledge to the VQA system. For image captioning, our system attains more informative results in term of the relative improvements on VQA tasks as well as competitive results using automated metrics. Applying our system to the VQA tasks, our results on VQA v2 dataset achieve 65.8% using generated captions and 69.1% using annotated captions in validation set and 68.4% in the test-standard set. Further, an ensemble of 10 models results in 69.7% in the test-standard split.
In this paper, we propose a novel conditional generative adversarial nets based image captioning framework as an extension of traditional reinforcement learning (RL) based encoder-decoder architecture. To deal with the inconsistent evaluation problem between objective language metrics and subjective human judgements, we are inspired to design some "discriminator" networks to automatically and progressively determine whether generated caption is human described or machine generated. Two kinds of discriminator architecture (CNN and RNN based structures) are introduced since each has its own advantages. The proposed algorithm is generic so that it can enhance any existing encoder-decoder based image captioning model and we show that conventional RL training method is just a special case of our framework. Empirically, we show consistent improvements over all language evaluation metrics for different stage-of-the-art image captioning models.
This paper discusses and demonstrates the outcomes from our experimentation on Image Captioning. Image captioning is a much more involved task than image recognition or classification, because of the additional challenge of recognizing the interdependence between the objects/concepts in the image and the creation of a succinct sentential narration. Experiments on several labeled datasets show the accuracy of the model and the fluency of the language it learns solely from image descriptions. As a toy application, we apply image captioning to create video captions, and we advance a few hypotheses on the challenges we encountered.
Recently, much advance has been made in image captioning, and an encoder-decoder framework has achieved outstanding performance for this task. In this paper, we propose an extension of the encoder-decoder framework by adding a component called guiding network. The guiding network models the attribute properties of input images, and its output is leveraged to compose the input of the decoder at each time step. The guiding network can be plugged into the current encoder-decoder framework and trained in an end-to-end manner. Hence, the guiding vector can be adaptively learned according to the signal from the decoder, making itself to embed information from both image and language. Additionally, discriminative supervision can be employed to further improve the quality of guidance. The advantages of our proposed approach are verified by experiments carried out on the MS COCO dataset.
Automatically creating the description of an image using any natural languages sentence like English is a very challenging task. It requires expertise of both image processing as well as natural language processing. This paper discuss about different available models for image captioning task. We have also discussed about how the advancement in the task of object recognition and machine translation has greatly improved the performance of image captioning model in recent years. In addition to that we have discussed how this model can be implemented. In the end, we have also evaluated the performance of model using standard evaluation matrices.
Image captioning has so far been explored mostly in English, as most available datasets are in this language. However, the application of image captioning should not be restricted by language. Only few studies have been conducted for image captioning in a cross-lingual setting. Different from these works that manually build a dataset for a target language, we aim to learn a cross-lingual captioning model fully from machine-translated sentences. To conquer the lack of fluency in the translated sentences, we propose in this paper a fluency-guided learning framework. The framework comprises a module to automatically estimate the fluency of the sentences and another module to utilize the estimated fluency scores to effectively train an image captioning model for the target language. As experiments on two bilingual (English-Chinese) datasets show, our approach improves both fluency and relevance of the generated captions in Chinese, but without using any manually written sentences from the target language.