\textbf{A}ccuracy, \textbf{R}obustness to noises and scales, \textbf{I}nterpretability, \textbf{S}peed, and \textbf{E}asy to use (ARISE) are crucial requirements of a good clustering algorithm. However, achieving these goals simultaneously is challenging, and most advanced approaches only focus on parts of them. Towards an overall consideration of these aspects, we propose a novel clustering algorithm, namely GIT (Clustering Based on \textbf{G}raph of \textbf{I}ntensity \textbf{T}opology). GIT considers both local and global data structures: firstly forming local clusters based on intensity peaks of samples, and then estimating the global topological graph (topo-graph) between these local clusters. We use the Wasserstein Distance between the predicted and prior class proportions to automatically cut noisy edges in the topo-graph and merge connected local clusters as final clusters. Then, we compare GIT with seven competing algorithms on five synthetic datasets and nine real-world datasets. With fast local cluster detection, robust topo-graph construction and accurate edge-cutting, GIT shows attractive ARISE performance and significantly exceeds other non-convex clustering methods. For example, GIT outperforms its counterparts about $10\%$ (F1-score) on MNIST and FashionMNIST. Code is available at \color{red}{https://github.com/gaozhangyang/GIT}.

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CLUSTER:IEEE International Conference on Cluster Computing。 Explanation:IEEE集群计算国际会议。 Publisher:IEEE。 SIT: https://dblp.uni-trier.de/db/conf/cluster/

A novel combination of two widely-used clustering algorithms is proposed here for the detection and reduction of high data density regions. The Density Based Spatial Clustering of Applications with Noise (DBSCAN) algorithm is used for the detection of high data density regions and the k-means algorithm for reduction. The proposed algorithm iterates while successively decrementing the DBSCAN search radius, allowing for an adaptive reduction factor based on the effective data density. The algorithm is demonstrated for a physics simulation application, where a surrogate model for fusion reactor plasma turbulence is generated with neural networks. A training dataset for the surrogate model is created with a quasilinear gyrokinetics code for turbulent transport calculations in fusion plasmas. The training set consists of model inputs derived from a repository of experimental measurements, meaning there is a potential risk of over-representing specific regions of this input parameter space. By applying the proposed reduction algorithm to this dataset, this study demonstrates that the training dataset can be reduced by a factor ~20 using the proposed algorithm, without a noticeable loss in the surrogate model accuracy. This reduction provides a novel way of analyzing existing high-dimensional datasets for biases and consequently reducing them, which lowers the cost of re-populating that parameter space with higher quality data.

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Heatmap-based methods dominate in the field of human pose estimation by modelling the output distribution through likelihood heatmaps. In contrast, regression-based methods are more efficient but suffer from inferior performance. In this work, we explore maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) to develop an efficient and effective regression-based methods. From the perspective of MLE, adopting different regression losses is making different assumptions about the output density function. A density function closer to the true distribution leads to a better regression performance. In light of this, we propose a novel regression paradigm with Residual Log-likelihood Estimation (RLE) to capture the underlying output distribution. Concretely, RLE learns the change of the distribution instead of the unreferenced underlying distribution to facilitate the training process. With the proposed reparameterization design, our method is compatible with off-the-shelf flow models. The proposed method is effective, efficient and flexible. We show its potential in various human pose estimation tasks with comprehensive experiments. Compared to the conventional regression paradigm, regression with RLE bring 12.4 mAP improvement on MSCOCO without any test-time overhead. Moreover, for the first time, especially on multi-person pose estimation, our regression method is superior to the heatmap-based methods. Our code is available at https://github.com/Jeff-sjtu/res-loglikelihood-regression

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Graph neural networks (GNNs) is widely used to learn a powerful representation of graph-structured data. Recent work demonstrates that transferring knowledge from self-supervised tasks to downstream tasks could further improve graph representation. However, there is an inherent gap between self-supervised tasks and downstream tasks in terms of optimization objective and training data. Conventional pre-training methods may be not effective enough on knowledge transfer since they do not make any adaptation for downstream tasks. To solve such problems, we propose a new transfer learning paradigm on GNNs which could effectively leverage self-supervised tasks as auxiliary tasks to help the target task. Our methods would adaptively select and combine different auxiliary tasks with the target task in the fine-tuning stage. We design an adaptive auxiliary loss weighting model to learn the weights of auxiliary tasks by quantifying the consistency between auxiliary tasks and the target task. In addition, we learn the weighting model through meta-learning. Our methods can be applied to various transfer learning approaches, it performs well not only in multi-task learning but also in pre-training and fine-tuning. Comprehensive experiments on multiple downstream tasks demonstrate that the proposed methods can effectively combine auxiliary tasks with the target task and significantly improve the performance compared to state-of-the-art methods.

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Unsupervised (or self-supervised) graph representation learning is essential to facilitate various graph data mining tasks when external supervision is unavailable. The challenge is to encode the information about the graph structure and the attributes associated with the nodes and edges into a low dimensional space. Most existing unsupervised methods promote similar representations across nodes that are topologically close. Recently, it was shown that leveraging additional graph-level information, e.g., information that is shared among all nodes, encourages the representations to be mindful of the global properties of the graph, which greatly improves their quality. However, in most graphs, there is significantly more structure that can be captured, e.g., nodes tend to belong to (multiple) clusters that represent structurally similar nodes. Motivated by this observation, we propose a graph representation learning method called Graph InfoClust (GIC), that seeks to additionally capture cluster-level information content. These clusters are computed by a differentiable K-means method and are jointly optimized by maximizing the mutual information between nodes of the same clusters. This optimization leads the node representations to capture richer information and nodal interactions, which improves their quality. Experiments show that GIC outperforms state-of-art methods in various downstream tasks (node classification, link prediction, and node clustering) with a 0.9% to 6.1% gain over the best competing approach, on average.

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Co-saliency detection aims to discover the common and salient foregrounds from a group of relevant images. For this task, we present a novel adaptive graph convolutional network with attention graph clustering (GCAGC). Three major contributions have been made, and are experimentally shown to have substantial practical merits. First, we propose a graph convolutional network design to extract information cues to characterize the intra- and interimage correspondence. Second, we develop an attention graph clustering algorithm to discriminate the common objects from all the salient foreground objects in an unsupervised fashion. Third, we present a unified framework with encoder-decoder structure to jointly train and optimize the graph convolutional network, attention graph cluster, and co-saliency detection decoder in an end-to-end manner. We evaluate our proposed GCAGC method on three cosaliency detection benchmark datasets (iCoseg, Cosal2015 and COCO-SEG). Our GCAGC method obtains significant improvements over the state-of-the-arts on most of them.

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Graph convolutional networks (GCNs) have been successfully applied in node classification tasks of network mining. However, most of these models based on neighborhood aggregation are usually shallow and lack the "graph pooling" mechanism, which prevents the model from obtaining adequate global information. In order to increase the receptive field, we propose a novel deep Hierarchical Graph Convolutional Network (H-GCN) for semi-supervised node classification. H-GCN first repeatedly aggregates structurally similar nodes to hyper-nodes and then refines the coarsened graph to the original to restore the representation for each node. Instead of merely aggregating one- or two-hop neighborhood information, the proposed coarsening procedure enlarges the receptive field for each node, hence more global information can be captured. The proposed H-GCN model shows strong empirical performance on various public benchmark graph datasets, outperforming state-of-the-art methods and acquiring up to 5.9% performance improvement in terms of accuracy. In addition, when only a few labeled samples are provided, our model gains substantial improvements.

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Attributed graph clustering is challenging as it requires joint modelling of graph structures and node attributes. Recent progress on graph convolutional networks has proved that graph convolution is effective in combining structural and content information, and several recent methods based on it have achieved promising clustering performance on some real attributed networks. However, there is limited understanding of how graph convolution affects clustering performance and how to properly use it to optimize performance for different graphs. Existing methods essentially use graph convolution of a fixed and low order that only takes into account neighbours within a few hops of each node, which underutilizes node relations and ignores the diversity of graphs. In this paper, we propose an adaptive graph convolution method for attributed graph clustering that exploits high-order graph convolution to capture global cluster structure and adaptively selects the appropriate order for different graphs. We establish the validity of our method by theoretical analysis and extensive experiments on benchmark datasets. Empirical results show that our method compares favourably with state-of-the-art methods.

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Graph convolutional network (GCN) has been successfully applied to many graph-based applications; however, training a large-scale GCN remains challenging. Current SGD-based algorithms suffer from either a high computational cost that exponentially grows with number of GCN layers, or a large space requirement for keeping the entire graph and the embedding of each node in memory. In this paper, we propose Cluster-GCN, a novel GCN algorithm that is suitable for SGD-based training by exploiting the graph clustering structure. Cluster-GCN works as the following: at each step, it samples a block of nodes that associate with a dense subgraph identified by a graph clustering algorithm, and restricts the neighborhood search within this subgraph. This simple but effective strategy leads to significantly improved memory and computational efficiency while being able to achieve comparable test accuracy with previous algorithms. To test the scalability of our algorithm, we create a new Amazon2M data with 2 million nodes and 61 million edges which is more than 5 times larger than the previous largest publicly available dataset (Reddit). For training a 3-layer GCN on this data, Cluster-GCN is faster than the previous state-of-the-art VR-GCN (1523 seconds vs 1961 seconds) and using much less memory (2.2GB vs 11.2GB). Furthermore, for training 4 layer GCN on this data, our algorithm can finish in around 36 minutes while all the existing GCN training algorithms fail to train due to the out-of-memory issue. Furthermore, Cluster-GCN allows us to train much deeper GCN without much time and memory overhead, which leads to improved prediction accuracy---using a 5-layer Cluster-GCN, we achieve state-of-the-art test F1 score 99.36 on the PPI dataset, while the previous best result was 98.71 by [16].

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Medical image segmentation requires consensus ground truth segmentations to be derived from multiple expert annotations. A novel approach is proposed that obtains consensus segmentations from experts using graph cuts (GC) and semi supervised learning (SSL). Popular approaches use iterative Expectation Maximization (EM) to estimate the final annotation and quantify annotator's performance. Such techniques pose the risk of getting trapped in local minima. We propose a self consistency (SC) score to quantify annotator consistency using low level image features. SSL is used to predict missing annotations by considering global features and local image consistency. The SC score also serves as the penalty cost in a second order Markov random field (MRF) cost function optimized using graph cuts to derive the final consensus label. Graph cut obtains a global maximum without an iterative procedure. Experimental results on synthetic images, real data of Crohn's disease patients and retinal images show our final segmentation to be accurate and more consistent than competing methods.

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Spectral graph convolutional neural networks (CNNs) require approximation to the convolution to alleviate the computational complexity, resulting in performance loss. This paper proposes the topology adaptive graph convolutional network (TAGCN), a novel graph convolutional network defined in the vertex domain. We provide a systematic way to design a set of fixed-size learnable filters to perform convolutions on graphs. The topologies of these filters are adaptive to the topology of the graph when they scan the graph to perform convolution. The TAGCN not only inherits the properties of convolutions in CNN for grid-structured data, but it is also consistent with convolution as defined in graph signal processing. Since no approximation to the convolution is needed, TAGCN exhibits better performance than existing spectral CNNs on a number of data sets and is also computationally simpler than other recent methods.

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