Image-to-image translation (I2I) aims to transfer images from a source domain to a target domain while preserving the content representations. I2I has drawn increasing attention and made tremendous progress in recent years because of its wide range of applications in many computer vision and image processing problems, such as image synthesis, segmentation, style transfer, restoration, and pose estimation. In this paper, we provide an overview of the I2I works developed in recent years. We will analyze the key techniques of the existing I2I works and clarify the main progress the community has made. Additionally, we will elaborate on the effect of I2I on the research and industry community and point out remaining challenges in related fields.

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Processing 是一门开源编程语言和与之配套的集成开发环境(IDE)的名称。Processing 在电子艺术和视觉设计社区被用来教授编程基础,并运用于大量的新媒体和互动艺术作品中。

In recent years a vast amount of visual content has been generated and shared from various fields, such as social media platforms, medical images, and robotics. This abundance of content creation and sharing has introduced new challenges. In particular, searching databases for similar content, i.e. content based image retrieval (CBIR), is a long-established research area, and more efficient and accurate methods are needed for real time retrieval. Artificial intelligence has made progress in CBIR and has significantly facilitated the process of intelligent search. In this survey we organize and review recent CBIR works that are developed based on deep learning algorithms and techniques, including insights and techniques from recent papers. We identify and present the commonly-used databases, benchmarks, and evaluation methods used in the field. We collect common challenges and propose promising future directions. More specifically, we focus on image retrieval with deep learning and organize the state of the art methods according to the types of deep network structure, deep features, feature enhancement methods, and network fine-tuning strategies. Our survey considers a wide variety of recent methods, aiming to promote a global view of the field of category-based CBIR.

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Deep learning techniques have received much attention in the area of image denoising. However, there are substantial differences in the various types of deep learning methods dealing with image denoising. Specifically, discriminative learning based on deep learning can ably address the issue of Gaussian noise. Optimization models based on deep learning are effective in estimating the real noise. However, there has thus far been little related research to summarize the different deep learning techniques for image denoising. In this paper, we offer a comparative study of deep techniques in image denoising. We first classify the deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs) for additive white noisy images; the deep CNNs for real noisy images; the deep CNNs for blind denoising and the deep CNNs for hybrid noisy images, which represents the combination of noisy, blurred and low-resolution images. Then, we analyze the motivations and principles of the different types of deep learning methods. Next, we compare the state-of-the-art methods on public denoising datasets in terms of quantitative and qualitative analysis. Finally, we point out some potential challenges and directions of future research.

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Hashing has been widely used in approximate nearest search for large-scale database retrieval for its computation and storage efficiency. Deep hashing, which devises convolutional neural network architecture to exploit and extract the semantic information or feature of images, has received increasing attention recently. In this survey, several deep supervised hashing methods for image retrieval are evaluated and I conclude three main different directions for deep supervised hashing methods. Several comments are made at the end. Moreover, to break through the bottleneck of the existing hashing methods, I propose a Shadow Recurrent Hashing(SRH) method as a try. Specifically, I devise a CNN architecture to extract the semantic features of images and design a loss function to encourage similar images projected close. To this end, I propose a concept: shadow of the CNN output. During optimization process, the CNN output and its shadow are guiding each other so as to achieve the optimal solution as much as possible. Several experiments on dataset CIFAR-10 show the satisfying performance of SRH.

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The rapid advancements in machine learning, graphics processing technologies and availability of medical imaging data has led to a rapid increase in use of machine learning models in the medical domain. This was exacerbated by the rapid advancements in convolutional neural network (CNN) based architectures, which were adopted by the medical imaging community to assist clinicians in disease diagnosis. Since the grand success of AlexNet in 2012, CNNs have been increasingly used in medical image analysis to improve the efficiency of human clinicians. In recent years, three-dimensional (3D) CNNs have been employed for analysis of medical images. In this paper, we trace the history of how the 3D CNN was developed from its machine learning roots, brief mathematical description of 3D CNN and the preprocessing steps required for medical images before feeding them to 3D CNNs. We review the significant research in the field of 3D medical imaging analysis using 3D CNNs (and its variants) in different medical areas such as classification, segmentation, detection, and localization. We conclude by discussing the challenges associated with the use of 3D CNNs in the medical imaging domain (and the use of deep learning models, in general) and possible future trends in the field.

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Image segmentation is a key topic in image processing and computer vision with applications such as scene understanding, medical image analysis, robotic perception, video surveillance, augmented reality, and image compression, among many others. Various algorithms for image segmentation have been developed in the literature. Recently, due to the success of deep learning models in a wide range of vision applications, there has been a substantial amount of works aimed at developing image segmentation approaches using deep learning models. In this survey, we provide a comprehensive review of the literature at the time of this writing, covering a broad spectrum of pioneering works for semantic and instance-level segmentation, including fully convolutional pixel-labeling networks, encoder-decoder architectures, multi-scale and pyramid based approaches, recurrent networks, visual attention models, and generative models in adversarial settings. We investigate the similarity, strengths and challenges of these deep learning models, examine the most widely used datasets, report performances, and discuss promising future research directions in this area.

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Text-to-image synthesis refers to computational methods which translate human written textual descriptions, in the form of keywords or sentences, into images with similar semantic meaning to the text. In earlier research, image synthesis relied mainly on word to image correlation analysis combined with supervised methods to find best alignment of the visual content matching to the text. Recent progress in deep learning (DL) has brought a new set of unsupervised deep learning methods, particularly deep generative models which are able to generate realistic visual images using suitably trained neural network models. In this paper, we review the most recent development in the text-to-image synthesis research domain. Our survey first introduces image synthesis and its challenges, and then reviews key concepts such as generative adversarial networks (GANs) and deep convolutional encoder-decoder neural networks (DCNN). After that, we propose a taxonomy to summarize GAN based text-to-image synthesis into four major categories: Semantic Enhancement GANs, Resolution Enhancement GANs, Diversity Enhancement GANS, and Motion Enhancement GANs. We elaborate the main objective of each group, and further review typical GAN architectures in each group. The taxonomy and the review outline the techniques and the evolution of different approaches, and eventually provide a clear roadmap to summarize the list of contemporaneous solutions that utilize GANs and DCNNs to generate enthralling results in categories such as human faces, birds, flowers, room interiors, object reconstruction from edge maps (games) etc. The survey will conclude with a comparison of the proposed solutions, challenges that remain unresolved, and future developments in the text-to-image synthesis domain.

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This review paper discusses how context has been used in neural machine translation (NMT) in the past two years (2017-2018). Starting with a brief retrospect on the rapid evolution of NMT models, the paper then reviews studies that evaluate NMT output from various perspectives, with emphasis on those analyzing limitations of the translation of contextual phenomena. In a subsequent version, the paper will then present the main methods that were proposed to leverage context for improving translation quality, and distinguishes methods that aim to improve the translation of specific phenomena from those that consider a wider unstructured context.

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Since the proposal of big data analysis and Graphic Processing Unit (GPU), the deep learning technology has received a great deal of attention and has been widely applied in the field of imaging processing. In this paper, we have an aim to completely review and summarize the deep learning technologies for image denoising proposed in recent years. Morever, we systematically analyze the conventional machine learning methods for image denoising. Finally, we point out some research directions for the deep learning technologies in image denoising.

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Image-to-image translation aims to learn the mapping between two visual domains. There are two main challenges for many applications: 1) the lack of aligned training pairs and 2) multiple possible outputs from a single input image. In this work, we present an approach based on disentangled representation for producing diverse outputs without paired training images. To achieve diversity, we propose to embed images onto two spaces: a domain-invariant content space capturing shared information across domains and a domain-specific attribute space. Our model takes the encoded content features extracted from a given input and the attribute vectors sampled from the attribute space to produce diverse outputs at test time. To handle unpaired training data, we introduce a novel cross-cycle consistency loss based on disentangled representations. Qualitative results show that our model can generate diverse and realistic images on a wide range of tasks without paired training data. For quantitative comparisons, we measure realism with user study and diversity with a perceptual distance metric. We apply the proposed model to domain adaptation and show competitive performance when compared to the state-of-the-art on the MNIST-M and the LineMod datasets.

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Image-to-image translation tasks have been widely investigated with Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) and dual learning. However, existing models lack the ability to control the translated results in the target domain and their results usually lack of diversity in the sense that a fixed image usually leads to (almost) deterministic translation result. In this paper, we study a new problem, conditional image-to-image translation, which is to translate an image from the source domain to the target domain conditioned on a given image in the target domain. It requires that the generated image should inherit some domain-specific features of the conditional image from the target domain. Therefore, changing the conditional image in the target domain will lead to diverse translation results for a fixed input image from the source domain, and therefore the conditional input image helps to control the translation results. We tackle this problem with unpaired data based on GANs and dual learning. We twist two conditional translation models (one translation from A domain to B domain, and the other one from B domain to A domain) together for inputs combination and reconstruction while preserving domain independent features. We carry out experiments on men's faces from-to women's faces translation and edges to shoes&bags translations. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed method.

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