Human pose estimation - the process of recognizing human keypoints in a given image - is one of the most important tasks in computer vision and has a wide range of applications including movement diagnostics, surveillance, or self-driving vehicle. The accuracy of human keypoint prediction is increasingly improved thanks to the burgeoning development of deep learning. Most existing methods solved human pose estimation by generating heatmaps in which the ith heatmap indicates the location confidence of the ith keypoint. In this paper, we introduce novel network structures referred to as multiresolution representation learning for human keypoint prediction. At different resolutions in the learning process, our networks branch off and use extra layers to learn heatmap generation. We firstly consider the architectures for generating the multiresolution heatmaps after obtaining the lowest-resolution feature maps. Our second approach allows learning during the process of feature extraction in which the heatmaps are generated at each resolution of the feature extractor. The first and second approaches are referred to as multi-resolution heatmap learning and multi-resolution feature map learning respectively. Our architectures are simple yet effective, achieving good performance. We conducted experiments on two common benchmarks for human pose estimation: MS-COCO and MPII dataset.

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表示学习是通过利用训练数据来学习得到向量表示,这可以克服人工方法的局限性。 表示学习通常可分为两大类,无监督和有监督表示学习。大多数无监督表示学习方法利用自动编码器(如去噪自动编码器和稀疏自动编码器等)中的隐变量作为表示。 目前出现的变分自动编码器能够更好的容忍噪声和异常值。 然而,推断给定数据的潜在结构几乎是不可能的。 目前有一些近似推断的策略。 此外,一些无监督表示学习方法旨在近似某种特定的相似性度量。提出了一种无监督的相似性保持表示学习框架,该框架使用矩阵分解来保持成对的DTW相似性。 通过学习保持DTW的shaplets,即在转换后的空间中的欧式距离近似原始数据的真实DTW距离。有监督表示学习方法可以利用数据的标签信息,更好地捕获数据的语义结构。 孪生网络和三元组网络是目前两种比较流行的模型,它们的目标是最大化类别之间的距离并最小化了类别内部的距离。

Zero-shot learning (ZSL) aims to discriminate images from unseen classes by exploiting relations to seen classes via their semantic descriptions. Some recent papers have shown the importance of localized features together with fine-tuning the feature extractor to obtain discriminative and transferable features. However, these methods require complex attention or part detection modules to perform explicit localization in the visual space. In contrast, in this paper we propose localizing representations in the semantic/attribute space, with a simple but effective pipeline where localization is implicit. Focusing on attribute representations, we show that our method obtains state-of-the-art performance on CUB and SUN datasets, and also achieves competitive results on AWA2 dataset, outperforming generally more complex methods with explicit localization in the visual space. Our method can be implemented easily, which can be used as a new baseline for zero shot learning.

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This work focuses on mitigating two limitations in the joint learning of local feature detectors and descriptors. First, the ability to estimate the local shape (scale, orientation, etc.) of feature points is often neglected during dense feature extraction, while the shape-awareness is crucial to acquire stronger geometric invariance. Second, the localization accuracy of detected keypoints is not sufficient to reliably recover camera geometry, which has become the bottleneck in tasks such as 3D reconstruction. In this paper, we present ASLFeat, with three light-weight yet effective modifications to mitigate above issues. First, we resort to deformable convolutional networks to densely estimate and apply local transformation. Second, we take advantage of the inherent feature hierarchy to restore spatial resolution and low-level details for accurate keypoint localization. Finally, we use a peakiness measurement to relate feature responses and derive more indicative detection scores. The effect of each modification is thoroughly studied, and the evaluation is extensively conducted across a variety of practical scenarios. State-of-the-art results are reported that demonstrate the superiority of our methods.

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Recently, adaptive inference is gaining increasing attention due to its high computational efficiency. Different from existing works, which mainly exploit architecture redundancy for adaptive network design, in this paper, we focus on spatial redundancy of input samples, and propose a novel Resolution Adaptive Network (RANet). Our motivation is that low-resolution representations can be sufficient for classifying "easy" samples containing canonical objects, while high-resolution features are curial for recognizing some "hard" ones. In RANet, input images are first routed to a lightweight sub-network that efficiently extracts coarse feature maps, and samples with high confident predictions will exit early from the sub-network. The high-resolution paths are only activated for those "hard" samples whose previous predictions are unreliable. By adaptively processing the features in varying resolutions, the proposed RANet can significantly improve its computational efficiency. Experiments on three classification benchmark tasks (CIFAR-10, CIFAR-100 and ImageNet) demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed model in both anytime prediction setting and budgeted batch classification setting.

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This paper presents SimCLR: a simple framework for contrastive learning of visual representations. We simplify recently proposed contrastive self-supervised learning algorithms without requiring specialized architectures or a memory bank. In order to understand what enables the contrastive prediction tasks to learn useful representations, we systematically study the major components of our framework. We show that (1) composition of data augmentations plays a critical role in defining effective predictive tasks, (2) introducing a learnable nonlinear transformation between the representation and the contrastive loss substantially improves the quality of the learned representations, and (3) contrastive learning benefits from larger batch sizes and more training steps compared to supervised learning. By combining these findings, we are able to considerably outperform previous methods for self-supervised and semi-supervised learning on ImageNet. A linear classifier trained on self-supervised representations learned by SimCLR achieves 76.5% top-1 accuracy, which is a 7% relative improvement over previous state-of-the-art, matching the performance of a supervised ResNet-50. When fine-tuned on only 1% of the labels, we achieve 85.8% top-5 accuracy, outperforming AlexNet with 100X fewer labels.

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For many computer vision applications such as image captioning, visual question answering, and person search, learning discriminative feature representations at both image and text level is an essential yet challenging problem. Its challenges originate from the large word variance in the text domain as well as the difficulty of accurately measuring the distance between the features of the two modalities. Most prior work focuses on the latter challenge, by introducing loss functions that help the network learn better feature representations but fail to account for the complexity of the textual input. With that in mind, we introduce TIMAM: a Text-Image Modality Adversarial Matching approach that learns modality-invariant feature representations using adversarial and cross-modal matching objectives. In addition, we demonstrate that BERT, a publicly-available language model that extracts word embeddings, can successfully be applied in the text-to-image matching domain. The proposed approach achieves state-of-the-art cross-modal matching performance on four widely-used publicly-available datasets resulting in absolute improvements ranging from 2% to 5% in terms of rank-1 accuracy.

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This is an official pytorch implementation of Deep High-Resolution Representation Learning for Human Pose Estimation. In this work, we are interested in the human pose estimation problem with a focus on learning reliable high-resolution representations. Most existing methods recover high-resolution representations from low-resolution representations produced by a high-to-low resolution network. Instead, our proposed network maintains high-resolution representations through the whole process. We start from a high-resolution subnetwork as the first stage, gradually add high-to-low resolution subnetworks one by one to form more stages, and connect the mutli-resolution subnetworks in parallel. We conduct repeated multi-scale fusions such that each of the high-to-low resolution representations receives information from other parallel representations over and over, leading to rich high-resolution representations. As a result, the predicted keypoint heatmap is potentially more accurate and spatially more precise. We empirically demonstrate the effectiveness of our network through the superior pose estimation results over two benchmark datasets: the COCO keypoint detection dataset and the MPII Human Pose dataset. The code and models have been publicly available at \url{https://github.com/leoxiaobin/deep-high-resolution-net.pytorch}.

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Although Faster R-CNN and its variants have shown promising performance in object detection, they only exploit simple first-order representation of object proposals for final classification and regression. Recent classification methods demonstrate that the integration of high-order statistics into deep convolutional neural networks can achieve impressive improvement, but their goal is to model whole images by discarding location information so that they cannot be directly adopted to object detection. In this paper, we make an attempt to exploit high-order statistics in object detection, aiming at generating more discriminative representations for proposals to enhance the performance of detectors. To this end, we propose a novel Multi-scale Location-aware Kernel Representation (MLKP) to capture high-order statistics of deep features in proposals. Our MLKP can be efficiently computed on a modified multi-scale feature map using a low-dimensional polynomial kernel approximation.Moreover, different from existing orderless global representations based on high-order statistics, our proposed MLKP is location retentive and sensitive so that it can be flexibly adopted to object detection. Through integrating into Faster R-CNN schema, the proposed MLKP achieves very competitive performance with state-of-the-art methods, and improves Faster R-CNN by 4.9% (mAP), 4.7% (mAP) and 5.0% (AP at IOU=[0.5:0.05:0.95]) on PASCAL VOC 2007, VOC 2012 and MS COCO benchmarks, respectively. Code is available at: https://github.com/Hwang64/MLKP.

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In this paper, a novel video classification methodology is presented that aims to recognize different categories of third-person videos efficiently. The idea is to keep track of motion in videos by following optical flow elements over time. To classify the resulted motion time series efficiently, the idea is letting the machine to learn temporal features along the time dimension. This is done by training a multi-channel one dimensional Convolutional Neural Network (1D-CNN). Since CNNs represent the input data hierarchically, high level features are obtained by further processing of features in lower level layers. As a result, in the case of time series, long-term temporal features are extracted from short-term ones. Besides, the superiority of the proposed method over most of the deep-learning based approaches is that we only try to learn representative temporal features along the time dimension. This reduces the number of learning parameters significantly which results in trainability of our method on even smaller datasets. It is illustrated that the proposed method could reach state-of-the-art results on two public datasets UCF11 and jHMDB with the aid of a more efficient feature vector representation.

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In this paper we address the problem of learning robust cross-domain representations for sketch-based image retrieval (SBIR). While most SBIR approaches focus on extracting low- and mid-level descriptors for direct feature matching, recent works have shown the benefit of learning coupled feature representations to describe data from two related sources. However, cross-domain representation learning methods are typically cast into non-convex minimization problems that are difficult to optimize, leading to unsatisfactory performance. Inspired by self-paced learning, a learning methodology designed to overcome convergence issues related to local optima by exploiting the samples in a meaningful order (i.e. easy to hard), we introduce the cross-paced partial curriculum learning (CPPCL) framework. Compared with existing self-paced learning methods which only consider a single modality and cannot deal with prior knowledge, CPPCL is specifically designed to assess the learning pace by jointly handling data from dual sources and modality-specific prior information provided in the form of partial curricula. Additionally, thanks to the learned dictionaries, we demonstrate that the proposed CPPCL embeds robust coupled representations for SBIR. Our approach is extensively evaluated on four publicly available datasets (i.e. CUFS, Flickr15K, QueenMary SBIR and TU-Berlin Extension datasets), showing superior performance over competing SBIR methods.

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The task of multi-person human pose estimation in natural scenes is quite challenging. Existing methods include both top-down and bottom-up approaches. The main advantage of bottom-up methods is its excellent tradeoff between estimation accuracy and computational cost. We follow this path and aim to design smaller, faster, and more accurate neural networks for the regression of keypoints and limb association vectors. These two regression tasks are naturally dependent on each other. In this work, we propose a dual-path network specially designed for multi-person human pose estimation, and compare our performance with the openpose network in aspects of model size, forward speed, and estimation accuracy.

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