We study the problem of efficient semantic segmentation for large-scale 3D point clouds. By relying on expensive sampling techniques or computationally heavy pre/post-processing steps, most existing approaches are only able to be trained and operate over small-scale point clouds. In this paper, we introduce RandLA-Net, an efficient and lightweight neural architecture to directly infer per-point semantics for large-scale point clouds. The key to our approach is to use random point sampling instead of more complex point selection approaches. Although remarkably computation and memory efficient, random sampling can discard key features by chance. To overcome this, we introduce a novel local feature aggregation module to progressively increase the receptive field for each 3D point, thereby effectively preserving geometric details. Extensive experiments show that our RandLA-Net can process 1 million points in a single pass with up to 200X faster than existing approaches. Moreover, our RandLA-Net clearly surpasses state-of-the-art approaches for semantic segmentation on two large-scale benchmarks Semantic3D and SemanticKITTI.
Recently, numerous handcrafted and searched networks have been applied for semantic segmentation. However, previous works intend to handle inputs with various scales in pre-defined static architectures, such as FCN, U-Net, and DeepLab series. This paper studies a conceptually new method to alleviate the scale variance in semantic representation, named dynamic routing. The proposed framework generates data-dependent routes, adapting to the scale distribution of each image. To this end, a differentiable gating function, called soft conditional gate, is proposed to select scale transform paths on the fly. In addition, the computational cost can be further reduced in an end-to-end manner by giving budget constraints to the gating function. We further relax the network level routing space to support multi-path propagations and skip-connections in each forward, bringing substantial network capacity. To demonstrate the superiority of the dynamic property, we compare with several static architectures, which can be modeled as special cases in the routing space. Extensive experiments are conducted on Cityscapes and PASCAL VOC 2012 to illustrate the effectiveness of the dynamic framework. Code is available at https://github.com/yanwei-li/DynamicRouting.
A 3D point cloud describes the real scene precisely and intuitively.To date how to segment diversified elements in such an informative 3D scene is rarely discussed. In this paper, we first introduce a simple and flexible framework to segment instances and semantics in point clouds simultaneously. Then, we propose two approaches which make the two tasks take advantage of each other, leading to a win-win situation. Specifically, we make instance segmentation benefit from semantic segmentation through learning semantic-aware point-level instance embedding. Meanwhile, semantic features of the points belonging to the same instance are fused together to make more accurate per-point semantic predictions. Our method largely outperforms the state-of-the-art method in 3D instance segmentation along with a significant improvement in 3D semantic segmentation. Code has been made available at: https://github.com/WXinlong/ASIS.
The main obstacle to weakly supervised semantic image segmentation is the difficulty of obtaining pixel-level information from coarse image-level annotations. Most methods based on image-level annotations use localization maps obtained from the classifier, but these only focus on the small discriminative parts of objects and do not capture precise boundaries. FickleNet explores diverse combinations of locations on feature maps created by generic deep neural networks. It selects hidden units randomly and then uses them to obtain activation scores for image classification. FickleNet implicitly learns the coherence of each location in the feature maps, resulting in a localization map which identifies both discriminative and other parts of objects. The ensemble effects are obtained from a single network by selecting random hidden unit pairs, which means that a variety of localization maps are generated from a single image. Our approach does not require any additional training steps and only adds a simple layer to a standard convolutional neural network; nevertheless it outperforms recent comparable techniques on the Pascal VOC 2012 benchmark in both weakly and semi-supervised settings.
We address the problem of segmenting 3D multi-modal medical images in scenarios where very few labeled examples are available for training. Leveraging the recent success of adversarial learning for semi-supervised segmentation, we propose a novel method based on Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) to train a segmentation model with both labeled and unlabeled images. The proposed method prevents over-fitting by learning to discriminate between true and fake patches obtained by a generator network. Our work extends current adversarial learning approaches, which focus on 2D single-modality images, to the more challenging context of 3D volumes of multiple modalities. The proposed method is evaluated on the problem of segmenting brain MRI from the iSEG-2017 and MRBrainS 2013 datasets. Significant performance improvement is reported, compared to state-of-art segmentation networks trained in a fully-supervised manner. In addition, our work presents a comprehensive analysis of different GAN architectures for semi-supervised segmentation, showing recent techniques like feature matching to yield a higher performance than conventional adversarial training approaches. Our code is publicly available at https://github.com/arnab39/FewShot_GAN-Unet3D
Semantic segmentation requires both rich spatial information and sizeable receptive field. However, modern approaches usually compromise spatial resolution to achieve real-time inference speed, which leads to poor performance. In this paper, we address this dilemma with a novel Bilateral Segmentation Network (BiSeNet). We first design a Spatial Path with a small stride to preserve the spatial information and generate high-resolution features. Meanwhile, a Context Path with a fast downsampling strategy is employed to obtain sufficient receptive field. On top of the two paths, we introduce a new Feature Fusion Module to combine features efficiently. The proposed architecture makes a right balance between the speed and segmentation performance on Cityscapes, CamVid, and COCO-Stuff datasets. Specifically, for a 2048x1024 input, we achieve 68.4% Mean IOU on the Cityscapes test dataset with speed of 105 FPS on one NVIDIA Titan XP card, which is significantly faster than the existing methods with comparable performance.
For the challenging semantic image segmentation task the most efficient models have traditionally combined the structured modelling capabilities of Conditional Random Fields (CRFs) with the feature extraction power of CNNs. In more recent works however, CRF post-processing has fallen out of favour. We argue that this is mainly due to the slow training and inference speeds of CRFs, as well as the difficulty of learning the internal CRF parameters. To overcome both issues we propose to add the assumption of conditional independence to the framework of fully-connected CRFs. This allows us to reformulate the inference in terms of convolutions, which can be implemented highly efficiently on GPUs. Doing so speeds up inference and training by a factor of more then 100. All parameters of the convolutional CRFs can easily be optimized using backpropagation. To facilitating further CRF research we make our implementation publicly available. Please visit: https://github.com/MarvinTeichmann/ConvCRF
In this paper, we propose a simple but effective semantic-based aggregation (SBA) method. The proposed SBA utilizes the discriminative filters of deep convolutional layers as semantic detectors. Moreover, we propose the effective unsupervised strategy to select some semantic detectors to generate the "probabilistic proposals", which highlight certain discriminative pattern of objects and suppress the noise of background. The final global SBA representation could then be acquired by aggregating the regional representations weighted by the selected "probabilistic proposals" corresponding to various semantic content. Our unsupervised SBA is easy to generalize and achieves excellent performance on various tasks. We conduct comprehensive experiments and show that our unsupervised SBA outperforms the state-of-the-art unsupervised and supervised aggregation methods on image retrieval, place recognition and cloud classification.
Lidar based 3D object detection is inevitable for autonomous driving, because it directly links to environmental understanding and therefore builds the base for prediction and motion planning. The capacity of inferencing highly sparse 3D data in real-time is an ill-posed problem for lots of other application areas besides automated vehicles, e.g. augmented reality, personal robotics or industrial automation. We introduce Complex-YOLO, a state of the art real-time 3D object detection network on point clouds only. In this work, we describe a network that expands YOLOv2, a fast 2D standard object detector for RGB images, by a specific complex regression strategy to estimate multi-class 3D boxes in Cartesian space. Thus, we propose a specific Euler-Region-Proposal Network (E-RPN) to estimate the pose of the object by adding an imaginary and a real fraction to the regression network. This ends up in a closed complex space and avoids singularities, which occur by single angle estimations. The E-RPN supports to generalize well during training. Our experiments on the KITTI benchmark suite show that we outperform current leading methods for 3D object detection specifically in terms of efficiency. We achieve state of the art results for cars, pedestrians and cyclists by being more than five times faster than the fastest competitor. Further, our model is capable of estimating all eight KITTI-classes, including Vans, Trucks or sitting pedestrians simultaneously with high accuracy.
This paper proposes a generative ScatterNet hybrid deep learning (G-SHDL) network for semantic image segmentation. The proposed generative architecture is able to train rapidly from relatively small labeled datasets using the introduced structural priors. In addition, the number of filters in each layer of the architecture is optimized resulting in a computationally efficient architecture. The G-SHDL network produces state-of-the-art classification performance against unsupervised and semi-supervised learning on two image datasets. Advantages of the G-SHDL network over supervised methods are demonstrated with experiments performed on training datasets of reduced size.
Image segmentation is considered to be one of the critical tasks in hyperspectral remote sensing image processing. Recently, convolutional neural network (CNN) has established itself as a powerful model in segmentation and classification by demonstrating excellent performances. The use of a graphical model such as a conditional random field (CRF) contributes further in capturing contextual information and thus improving the segmentation performance. In this paper, we propose a method to segment hyperspectral images by considering both spectral and spatial information via a combined framework consisting of CNN and CRF. We use multiple spectral cubes to learn deep features using CNN, and then formulate deep CRF with CNN-based unary and pairwise potential functions to effectively extract the semantic correlations between patches consisting of three-dimensional data cubes. Effective piecewise training is applied in order to avoid the computationally expensive iterative CRF inference. Furthermore, we introduce a deep deconvolution network that improves the segmentation masks. We also introduce a new dataset and experimented our proposed method on it along with several widely adopted benchmark datasets to evaluate the effectiveness of our method. By comparing our results with those from several state-of-the-art models, we show the promising potential of our method.