Cellular vehicle-to-everything (V2X) communication is expected to herald the age of autonomous vehicles in the coming years. With the integration of blockchain in such networks, information of all granularity levels, from complete blocks to individual transactions, would be accessible to vehicles at any time. Specifically, the blockchain technology is expected to improve the security, immutability, and decentralization of cellular V2X communication through smart contract and distributed ledgers. Although blockchain-based cellular V2X networks hold promise, many challenges need to be addressed to enable the future interoperability and accessibility of such large-scale platforms. One such challenge is the offloading of mining tasks in cellular V2X networks. While transportation authorities may try to balance the network mining load, the vehicles may select the nearest mining clusters to offload a task. This may cause congestion and disproportionate use of vehicular network resources. To address this issue, we propose a game-theoretic approach for balancing the load at mining clusters while maintaining fairness among offloading vehicles. Keeping in mind the low-latency requirements of vehicles, we consider a finite channel blocklength transmission which is more practical compared to the use of infinite blocklength codes. The simulation results obtained with our proposed offloading framework show improved performance over the conventional nearest mining cluster selection technique.
The concept of smart grid has been introduced as a new vision of the conventional power grid to figure out an efficient way of integrating green and renewable energy technologies. In this way, Internet-connected smart grid, also called energy Internet, is also emerging as an innovative approach to ensure the energy from anywhere at any time. The ultimate goal of these developments is to build a sustainable society. However, integrating and coordinating a large number of growing connections can be a challenging issue for the traditional centralized grid system. Consequently, the smart grid is undergoing a transformation to the decentralized topology from its centralized form. On the other hand, blockchain has some excellent features which make it a promising application for smart grid paradigm. In this paper, we have an aim to provide a comprehensive survey on application of blockchain in smart grid. As such, we identify the significant security challenges of smart grid scenarios that can be addressed by blockchain. Then, we present a number of blockchain-based recent research works presented in different literatures addressing security issues in the area of smart grid. We also summarize several related practical projects, trials, and products that have been emerged recently. Finally, we discuss essential research challenges and future directions of applying blockchain to smart grid security issues.
Recently, Neural Architecture Search (NAS) has successfully identified neural network architectures that exceed human designed ones on large-scale image classification problems. In this paper, we study NAS for semantic image segmentation, an important computer vision task that assigns a semantic label to every pixel in an image. Existing works often focus on searching the repeatable cell structure, while hand-designing the outer network structure that controls the spatial resolution changes. This choice simplifies the search space, but becomes increasingly problematic for dense image prediction which exhibits a lot more network level architectural variations. Therefore, we propose to search the network level structure in addition to the cell level structure, which forms a hierarchical architecture search space. We present a network level search space that includes many popular designs, and develop a formulation that allows efficient gradient-based architecture search (3 P100 GPU days on Cityscapes images). We demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method on the challenging Cityscapes, PASCAL VOC 2012, and ADE20K datasets. Without any ImageNet pretraining, our architecture searched specifically for semantic image segmentation attains state-of-the-art performance.
Since the proposal of big data analysis and Graphic Processing Unit (GPU), the deep learning technology has received a great deal of attention and has been widely applied in the field of imaging processing. In this paper, we have an aim to completely review and summarize the deep learning technologies for image denoising proposed in recent years. Morever, we systematically analyze the conventional machine learning methods for image denoising. Finally, we point out some research directions for the deep learning technologies in image denoising.
The ever-growing interest witnessed in the acquisition and development of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), commonly known as drones in the past few years, has brought generation of a very promising and effective technology. Because of their characteristic of small size and fast deployment, UAVs have shown their effectiveness in collecting data over unreachable areas and restricted coverage zones. Moreover, their flexible-defined capacity enables them to collect information with a very high level of detail, leading to high resolution images. UAVs mainly served in military scenario. However, in the last decade, they have being broadly adopted in civilian applications as well. The task of aerial surveillance and situation awareness is usually completed by integrating intelligence, surveillance, observation, and navigation systems, all interacting in the same operational framework. To build this capability, UAV's are well suited tools that can be equipped with a wide variety of sensors, such as cameras or radars. Deep learning has been widely recognized as a prominent approach in different computer vision applications. Specifically, one-stage object detector and two-stage object detector are regarded as the most important two groups of Convolutional Neural Network based object detection methods. One-stage object detector could usually outperform two-stage object detector in speed; however, it normally trails in detection accuracy, compared with two-stage object detectors. In this study, focal loss based RetinaNet, which works as one-stage object detector, is utilized to be able to well match the speed of regular one-stage detectors and also defeat two-stage detectors in accuracy, for UAV based object detection. State-of-the-art performance result has been showed on the UAV captured image dataset-Stanford Drone Dataset (SDD).
Deep hierarchical reinforcement learning has gained a lot of attention in recent years due to its ability to produce state-of-the-art results in challenging environments where non-hierarchical frameworks fail to learn useful policies. However, as problem domains become more complex, deep hierarchical reinforcement learning can become inefficient, leading to longer convergence times and poor performance. We introduce the Deep Nested Agent framework, which is a variant of deep hierarchical reinforcement learning where information from the main agent is propagated to the low level $nested$ agent by incorporating this information into the nested agent's state. We demonstrate the effectiveness and performance of the Deep Nested Agent framework by applying it to three scenarios in Minecraft with comparisons to a deep non-hierarchical single agent framework, as well as, a deep hierarchical framework.
Person re-identification (ReID) aims at matching persons across different views/scenes. In addition to accuracy, the matching efficiency has received more and more attention because of demanding applications using large-scale data. Several binary coding based methods have been proposed for efficient ReID, which either learn projections to map high-dimensional features to compact binary codes, or directly adopt deep neural networks by simply inserting an additional fully-connected layer with tanh-like activations. However, the former approach requires time-consuming hand-crafted feature extraction and complicated (discrete) optimizations; the latter lacks the necessary discriminative information greatly due to the straightforward activation functions. In this paper, we propose a simple yet effective framework for efficient ReID inspired by the recent advances in adversarial learning. Specifically, instead of learning explicit projections or adding fully-connected mapping layers, the proposed Adversarial Binary Coding (ABC) framework guides the extraction of binary codes implicitly and effectively. The discriminability of the extracted codes is further enhanced by equipping the ABC with a deep triplet network for the ReID task. More importantly, the ABC and triplet network are simultaneously optimized in an end-to-end manner. Extensive experiments on three large-scale ReID benchmarks demonstrate the superiority of our approach over the state-of-the-art methods.
Like any large software system, a full-fledged DBMS offers an overwhelming amount of configuration knobs. These range from static initialisation parameters like buffer sizes, degree of concurrency, or level of replication to complex runtime decisions like creating a secondary index on a particular column or reorganising the physical layout of the store. To simplify the configuration, industry grade DBMSs are usually shipped with various advisory tools, that provide recommendations for given workloads and machines. However, reality shows that the actual configuration, tuning, and maintenance is usually still done by a human administrator, relying on intuition and experience. Recent work on deep reinforcement learning has shown very promising results in solving problems, that require such a sense of intuition. For instance, it has been applied very successfully in learning how to play complicated games with enormous search spaces. Motivated by these achievements, in this work we explore how deep reinforcement learning can be used to administer a DBMS. First, we will describe how deep reinforcement learning can be used to automatically tune an arbitrary software system like a DBMS by defining a problem environment. Second, we showcase our concept of NoDBA at the concrete example of index selection and evaluate how well it recommends indexes for given workloads.
In this paper, an interference-aware path planning scheme for a network of cellular-connected unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) is proposed. In particular, each UAV aims at achieving a tradeoff between maximizing energy efficiency and minimizing both wireless latency and the interference level caused on the ground network along its path. The problem is cast as a dynamic game among UAVs. To solve this game, a deep reinforcement learning algorithm, based on echo state network (ESN) cells, is proposed. The introduced deep ESN architecture is trained to allow each UAV to map each observation of the network state to an action, with the goal of minimizing a sequence of time-dependent utility functions. Each UAV uses ESN to learn its optimal path, transmission power level, and cell association vector at different locations along its path. The proposed algorithm is shown to reach a subgame perfect Nash equilibrium (SPNE) upon convergence. Moreover, an upper and lower bound for the altitude of the UAVs is derived thus reducing the computational complexity of the proposed algorithm. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme achieves better wireless latency per UAV and rate per ground user (UE) while requiring a number of steps that is comparable to a heuristic baseline that considers moving via the shortest distance towards the corresponding destinations. The results also show that the optimal altitude of the UAVs varies based on the ground network density and the UE data rate requirements and plays a vital role in minimizing the interference level on the ground UEs as well as the wireless transmission delay of the UAV.
The field of Multi-Agent System (MAS) is an active area of research within Artificial Intelligence, with an increasingly important impact in industrial and other real-world applications. Within a MAS, autonomous agents interact to pursue personal interests and/or to achieve common objectives. Distributed Constraint Optimization Problems (DCOPs) have emerged as one of the prominent agent architectures to govern the agents' autonomous behavior, where both algorithms and communication models are driven by the structure of the specific problem. During the last decade, several extensions to the DCOP model have enabled them to support MAS in complex, real-time, and uncertain environments. This survey aims at providing an overview of the DCOP model, giving a classification of its multiple extensions and addressing both resolution methods and applications that find a natural mapping within each class of DCOPs. The proposed classification suggests several future perspectives for DCOP extensions, and identifies challenges in the design of efficient resolution algorithms, possibly through the adaptation of strategies from different areas.
With the spreading prevalence of Big Data, many advances have recently been made in this field. Frameworks such as Apache Hadoop and Apache Spark have gained a lot of traction over the past decades and have become massively popular, especially in industries. It is becoming increasingly evident that effective big data analysis is key to solving artificial intelligence problems. Thus, a multi-algorithm library was implemented in the Spark framework, called MLlib. While this library supports multiple machine learning algorithms, there is still scope to use the Spark setup efficiently for highly time-intensive and computationally expensive procedures like deep learning. In this paper, we propose a novel framework that combines the distributive computational abilities of Apache Spark and the advanced machine learning architecture of a deep multi-layer perceptron (MLP), using the popular concept of Cascade Learning. We conduct empirical analysis of our framework on two real world datasets. The results are encouraging and corroborate our proposed framework, in turn proving that it is an improvement over traditional big data analysis methods that use either Spark or Deep learning as individual elements.