Because of continuous advances in mathematical programing, Mix Integer Optimization has become a competitive vis-a-vis popular regularization method for selecting features in regression problems. The approach exhibits unquestionable foundational appeal and versatility, but also poses important challenges. We tackle these challenges, reducing computational burden when tuning the sparsity bound (a parameter which is critical for effectiveness) and improving performance in the presence of feature collinearity and of signals that vary in nature and strength. Importantly, we render the approach efficient and effective in applications of realistic size and complexity - without resorting to relaxations or heuristics in the optimization, or abandoning rigorous cross-validation tuning. Computational viability and improved performance in subtler scenarios is achieved with a multi-pronged blueprint, leveraging characteristics of the Mixed Integer Programming framework and by means of whitening, a data pre-processing step.
Zero-shot learning (ZSL) aims to discriminate images from unseen classes by exploiting relations to seen classes via their semantic descriptions. Some recent papers have shown the importance of localized features together with fine-tuning the feature extractor to obtain discriminative and transferable features. However, these methods require complex attention or part detection modules to perform explicit localization in the visual space. In contrast, in this paper we propose localizing representations in the semantic/attribute space, with a simple but effective pipeline where localization is implicit. Focusing on attribute representations, we show that our method obtains state-of-the-art performance on CUB and SUN datasets, and also achieves competitive results on AWA2 dataset, outperforming generally more complex methods with explicit localization in the visual space. Our method can be implemented easily, which can be used as a new baseline for zero shot learning.
This work focuses on mitigating two limitations in the joint learning of local feature detectors and descriptors. First, the ability to estimate the local shape (scale, orientation, etc.) of feature points is often neglected during dense feature extraction, while the shape-awareness is crucial to acquire stronger geometric invariance. Second, the localization accuracy of detected keypoints is not sufficient to reliably recover camera geometry, which has become the bottleneck in tasks such as 3D reconstruction. In this paper, we present ASLFeat, with three light-weight yet effective modifications to mitigate above issues. First, we resort to deformable convolutional networks to densely estimate and apply local transformation. Second, we take advantage of the inherent feature hierarchy to restore spatial resolution and low-level details for accurate keypoint localization. Finally, we use a peakiness measurement to relate feature responses and derive more indicative detection scores. The effect of each modification is thoroughly studied, and the evaluation is extensively conducted across a variety of practical scenarios. State-of-the-art results are reported that demonstrate the superiority of our methods.
Deep neural networks have achieved remarkable success in computer vision tasks. Existing neural networks mainly operate in the spatial domain with fixed input sizes. For practical applications, images are usually large and have to be downsampled to the predetermined input size of neural networks. Even though the downsampling operations reduce computation and the required communication bandwidth, it removes both redundant and salient information obliviously, which results in accuracy degradation. Inspired by digital signal processing theories, we analyze the spectral bias from the frequency perspective and propose a learning-based frequency selection method to identify the trivial frequency components which can be removed without accuracy loss. The proposed method of learning in the frequency domain leverages identical structures of the well-known neural networks, such as ResNet-50, MobileNetV2, and Mask R-CNN, while accepting the frequency-domain information as the input. Experiment results show that learning in the frequency domain with static channel selection can achieve higher accuracy than the conventional spatial downsampling approach and meanwhile further reduce the input data size. Specifically for ImageNet classification with the same input size, the proposed method achieves 1.41% and 0.66% top-1 accuracy improvements on ResNet-50 and MobileNetV2, respectively. Even with half input size, the proposed method still improves the top-1 accuracy on ResNet-50 by 1%. In addition, we observe a 0.8% average precision improvement on Mask R-CNN for instance segmentation on the COCO dataset.
Modern neural network training relies heavily on data augmentation for improved generalization. After the initial success of label-preserving augmentations, there has been a recent surge of interest in label-perturbing approaches, which combine features and labels across training samples to smooth the learned decision surface. In this paper, we propose a new augmentation method that leverages the first and second moments extracted and re-injected by feature normalization. We replace the moments of the learned features of one training image by those of another, and also interpolate the target labels. As our approach is fast, operates entirely in feature space, and mixes different signals than prior methods, one can effectively combine it with existing augmentation methods. We demonstrate its efficacy across benchmark data sets in computer vision, speech, and natural language processing, where it consistently improves the generalization performance of highly competitive baseline networks.
In this paper, we address the hyperspectral image (HSI) classification task with a generative adversarial network and conditional random field (GAN-CRF) -based framework, which integrates a semi-supervised deep learning and a probabilistic graphical model, and make three contributions. First, we design four types of convolutional and transposed convolutional layers that consider the characteristics of HSIs to help with extracting discriminative features from limited numbers of labeled HSI samples. Second, we construct semi-supervised GANs to alleviate the shortage of training samples by adding labels to them and implicitly reconstructing real HSI data distribution through adversarial training. Third, we build dense conditional random fields (CRFs) on top of the random variables that are initialized to the softmax predictions of the trained GANs and are conditioned on HSIs to refine classification maps. This semi-supervised framework leverages the merits of discriminative and generative models through a game-theoretical approach. Moreover, even though we used very small numbers of labeled training HSI samples from the two most challenging and extensively studied datasets, the experimental results demonstrated that spectral-spatial GAN-CRF (SS-GAN-CRF) models achieved top-ranking accuracy for semi-supervised HSI classification.
This paper aims to explore models based on the extreme gradient boosting (XGBoost) approach for business risk classification. Feature selection (FS) algorithms and hyper-parameter optimizations are simultaneously considered during model training. The five most commonly used FS methods including weight by Gini, weight by Chi-square, hierarchical variable clustering, weight by correlation, and weight by information are applied to alleviate the effect of redundant features. Two hyper-parameter optimization approaches, random search (RS) and Bayesian tree-structured Parzen Estimator (TPE), are applied in XGBoost. The effect of different FS and hyper-parameter optimization methods on the model performance are investigated by the Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test. The performance of XGBoost is compared to the traditionally utilized logistic regression (LR) model in terms of classification accuracy, area under the curve (AUC), recall, and F1 score obtained from the 10-fold cross validation. Results show that hierarchical clustering is the optimal FS method for LR while weight by Chi-square achieves the best performance in XG-Boost. Both TPE and RS optimization in XGBoost outperform LR significantly. TPE optimization shows a superiority over RS since it results in a significantly higher accuracy and a marginally higher AUC, recall and F1 score. Furthermore, XGBoost with TPE tuning shows a lower variability than the RS method. Finally, the ranking of feature importance based on XGBoost enhances the model interpretation. Therefore, XGBoost with Bayesian TPE hyper-parameter optimization serves as an operative while powerful approach for business risk modeling.
In recent years, many publications showed that convolutional neural network based features can have a superior performance to engineered features. However, not much effort was taken so far to extract local features efficiently for a whole image. In this paper, we present an approach to compute patch-based local feature descriptors efficiently in presence of pooling and striding layers for whole images at once. Our approach is generic and can be applied to nearly all existing network architectures. This includes networks for all local feature extraction tasks like camera calibration, Patchmatching, optical flow estimation and stereo matching. In addition, our approach can be applied to other patch-based approaches like sliding window object detection and recognition. We complete our paper with a speed benchmark of popular CNN based feature extraction approaches applied on a whole image, with and without our speedup, and example code (for Torch) that shows how an arbitrary CNN architecture can be easily converted by our approach.
Person re-identification (ReID) aims at matching persons across different views/scenes. In addition to accuracy, the matching efficiency has received more and more attention because of demanding applications using large-scale data. Several binary coding based methods have been proposed for efficient ReID, which either learn projections to map high-dimensional features to compact binary codes, or directly adopt deep neural networks by simply inserting an additional fully-connected layer with tanh-like activations. However, the former approach requires time-consuming hand-crafted feature extraction and complicated (discrete) optimizations; the latter lacks the necessary discriminative information greatly due to the straightforward activation functions. In this paper, we propose a simple yet effective framework for efficient ReID inspired by the recent advances in adversarial learning. Specifically, instead of learning explicit projections or adding fully-connected mapping layers, the proposed Adversarial Binary Coding (ABC) framework guides the extraction of binary codes implicitly and effectively. The discriminability of the extracted codes is further enhanced by equipping the ABC with a deep triplet network for the ReID task. More importantly, the ABC and triplet network are simultaneously optimized in an end-to-end manner. Extensive experiments on three large-scale ReID benchmarks demonstrate the superiority of our approach over the state-of-the-art methods.
Similarity/Distance measures play a key role in many machine learning, pattern recognition, and data mining algorithms, which leads to the emergence of metric learning field. Many metric learning algorithms learn a global distance function from data that satisfy the constraints of the problem. However, in many real-world datasets that the discrimination power of features varies in the different regions of input space, a global metric is often unable to capture the complexity of the task. To address this challenge, local metric learning methods are proposed that learn multiple metrics across the different regions of input space. Some advantages of these methods are high flexibility and the ability to learn a nonlinear mapping but typically achieves at the expense of higher time requirement and overfitting problem. To overcome these challenges, this research presents an online multiple metric learning framework. Each metric in the proposed framework is composed of a global and a local component learned simultaneously. Adding a global component to a local metric efficiently reduce the problem of overfitting. The proposed framework is also scalable with both sample size and the dimension of input data. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first local online similarity/distance learning framework based on PA (Passive/Aggressive). In addition, for scalability with the dimension of input data, DRP (Dual Random Projection) is extended for local online learning in the present work. It enables our methods to be run efficiently on high-dimensional datasets, while maintains their predictive performance. The proposed framework provides a straightforward local extension to any global online similarity/distance learning algorithm based on PA.
Partial person re-identification (re-id) is a challenging problem, where only several partial observations (images) of people are available for matching. However, few studies have provided flexible solutions to identifying a person in an image containing arbitrary part of the body. In this paper, we propose a fast and accurate matching method to address this problem. The proposed method leverages Fully Convolutional Network (FCN) to generate fix-sized spatial feature maps such that pixel-level features are consistent. To match a pair of person images of different sizes, a novel method called Deep Spatial feature Reconstruction (DSR) is further developed to avoid explicit alignment. Specifically, DSR exploits the reconstructing error from popular dictionary learning models to calculate the similarity between different spatial feature maps. In that way, we expect that the proposed FCN can decrease the similarity of coupled images from different persons and increase that from the same person. Experimental results on two partial person datasets demonstrate the efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed method in comparison with several state-of-the-art partial person re-id approaches. Additionally, DSR achieves competitive results on a benchmark person dataset Market1501 with 83.58\% Rank-1 accuracy.