The general aim of multi-focus image fusion is to gather focused regions of different images to generate a unique all-in-focus fused image. Deep learning based methods become the mainstream of image fusion by virtue of its powerful feature representation ability. However, most of the existing deep learning structures failed to balance fusion quality and end-to-end implementation convenience. End-to-end decoder design often leads to poor performance because of its non-linear mapping mechanism. On the other hand, generating an intermediate decision map achieves better quality for the fused image, but relies on the rectification with empirical post-processing parameter choices. In this work, to handle the requirements of both output image quality and comprehensive simplicity of structure implementation, we propose a cascade network to simultaneously generate decision map and fused result with an end-to-end training procedure. It avoids the dependence on empirical post-processing methods in the inference stage. To improve the fusion quality, we introduce a gradient aware loss function to preserve gradient information in output fused image. In addition, we design a decision calibration strategy to decrease the time consumption in the application of multiple image fusion. Extensive experiments are conducted to compare with 18 different state-of-the-art multi-focus image fusion structures with 6 assessment metrics. The results prove that our designed structure can generally ameliorate the output fused image quality, while implementation efficiency increases over 30\% for multiple image fusion.
It is challenging for weakly supervised object detection network to precisely predict the positions of the objects, since there are no instance-level category annotations. Most existing methods tend to solve this problem by using a two-phase learning procedure, i.e., multiple instance learning detector followed by a fully supervised learning detector with bounding-box regression. Based on our observation, this procedure may lead to local minima for some object categories. In this paper, we propose to jointly train the two phases in an end-to-end manner to tackle this problem. Specifically, we design a single network with both multiple instance learning and bounding-box regression branches that share the same backbone. Meanwhile, a guided attention module using classification loss is added to the backbone for effectively extracting the implicit location information in the features. Experimental results on public datasets show that our method achieves state-of-the-art performance.
Most existing studies on learning local features focus on the patch-based descriptions of individual keypoints, whereas neglecting the spatial relations established from their keypoint locations. In this paper, we go beyond the local detail representation by introducing context awareness to augment off-the-shelf local feature descriptors. Specifically, we propose a unified learning framework that leverages and aggregates the cross-modality contextual information, including (i) visual context from high-level image representation, and (ii) geometric context from 2D keypoint distribution. Moreover, we propose an effective N-pair loss that eschews the empirical hyper-parameter search and improves the convergence. The proposed augmentation scheme is lightweight compared with the raw local feature description, meanwhile improves remarkably on several large-scale benchmarks with diversified scenes, which demonstrates both strong practicality and generalization ability in geometric matching applications.
In this paper, we propose a residual non-local attention network for high-quality image restoration. Without considering the uneven distribution of information in the corrupted images, previous methods are restricted by local convolutional operation and equal treatment of spatial- and channel-wise features. To address this issue, we design local and non-local attention blocks to extract features that capture the long-range dependencies between pixels and pay more attention to the challenging parts. Specifically, we design trunk branch and (non-)local mask branch in each (non-)local attention block. The trunk branch is used to extract hierarchical features. Local and non-local mask branches aim to adaptively rescale these hierarchical features with mixed attentions. The local mask branch concentrates on more local structures with convolutional operations, while non-local attention considers more about long-range dependencies in the whole feature map. Furthermore, we propose residual local and non-local attention learning to train the very deep network, which further enhance the representation ability of the network. Our proposed method can be generalized for various image restoration applications, such as image denoising, demosaicing, compression artifacts reduction, and super-resolution. Experiments demonstrate that our method obtains comparable or better results compared with recently leading methods quantitatively and visually.
Medical image segmentation is a primary task in many applications, and the accuracy of the segmentation is a necessity. Recently, many deep learning networks derived from U-Net have been extensively used and have achieved notable results. To further improve and refine the performance of U-Net, parallel decoders along with mask prediction decoder have been carried out and have shown significant improvement with additional advantages. In our work, we utilize the advantages of using a combination of contour and distance map as regularizers. In turn, we propose a novel architecture Psi-Net with a single encoder and three parallel decoders, one decoder to learn the mask and other two to learn the auxiliary tasks of contour detection and distance map estimation. The learning of these auxiliary tasks helps in capturing the shape and boundary. We also propose a new joint loss function for the proposed architecture. The loss function consists of a weighted combination of Negative likelihood and Mean Square Error loss. We have used two publicly available datasets: 1) Origa dataset for the task of optic cup and disc segmentation and 2) Endovis segment dataset for the task of polyp segmentation to evaluate our model. We have conducted extensive experiments using our network to show our model gives better results in terms of segmentation, boundary and shape metrics.
Scale variation is one of the key challenges in object detection. In this work, we first present a controlled experiment to investigate the effect of receptive fields on the detection of different scale objects. Based on the findings from the exploration experiments, we propose a novel Trident Network (TridentNet) aiming to generate scale-specific feature maps with a uniform representational power. We construct a parallel multi-branch architecture in which each branch shares the same transformation parameters but with different receptive fields. Then, we propose a scale-aware training scheme to specialize each branch by sampling object instances of proper scales for training. As a bonus, a fast approximation version of TridentNet could achieve significant improvements without any additional parameters and computational cost. On the COCO dataset, our TridentNet with ResNet-101 backbone achieves state-of-the-art single-model results by obtaining an mAP of 48.4. Code will be made publicly available.
In this paper, we propose a novel fully convolutional two-stream fusion network (FCTSFN) for interactive image segmentation. The proposed network includes two sub-networks: a two-stream late fusion network (TSLFN) that predicts the foreground at a reduced resolution, and a multi-scale refining network (MSRN) that refines the foreground at full resolution. The TSLFN includes two distinct deep streams followed by a fusion network. The intuition is that, since user interactions are more direct information on foreground/background than the image itself, the two-stream structure of the TSLFN reduces the number of layers between the pure user interaction features and the network output, allowing the user interactions to have a more direct impact on the segmentation result. The MSRN fuses the features from different layers of TSLFN with different scales, in order to seek the local to global information on the foreground to refine the segmentation result at full resolution. We conduct comprehensive experiments on four benchmark datasets. The results show that the proposed network achieves competitive performance compared to current state-of-the-art interactive image segmentation methods
Recently, much advance has been made in image captioning, and an encoder-decoder framework has been adopted by all the state-of-the-art models. Under this framework, an input image is encoded by a convolutional neural network (CNN) and then translated into natural language with a recurrent neural network (RNN). The existing models counting on this framework merely employ one kind of CNNs, e.g., ResNet or Inception-X, which describe image contents from only one specific view point. Thus, the semantic meaning of an input image cannot be comprehensively understood, which restricts the performance of captioning. In this paper, in order to exploit the complementary information from multiple encoders, we propose a novel Recurrent Fusion Network (RFNet) for tackling image captioning. The fusion process in our model can exploit the interactions among the outputs of the image encoders and then generate new compact yet informative representations for the decoder. Experiments on the MSCOCO dataset demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed RFNet, which sets a new state-of-the-art for image captioning.
Network embedding has attracted considerable research attention recently. However, the existing methods are incapable of handling billion-scale networks, because they are computationally expensive and, at the same time, difficult to be accelerated by distributed computing schemes. To address these problems, we propose RandNE, a novel and simple billion-scale network embedding method. Specifically, we propose a Gaussian random projection approach to map the network into a low-dimensional embedding space while preserving the high-order proximities between nodes. To reduce the time complexity, we design an iterative projection procedure to avoid the explicit calculation of the high-order proximities. Theoretical analysis shows that our method is extremely efficient, and friendly to distributed computing schemes without any communication cost in the calculation. We demonstrate the efficacy of RandNE over state-of-the-art methods in network reconstruction and link prediction tasks on multiple datasets with different scales, ranging from thousands to billions of nodes and edges.
Deep convolutional neural networks have become a key element in the recent breakthrough of salient object detection. However, existing CNN-based methods are based on either patch-wise (region-wise) training and inference or fully convolutional networks. Methods in the former category are generally time-consuming due to severe storage and computational redundancies among overlapping patches. To overcome this deficiency, methods in the second category attempt to directly map a raw input image to a predicted dense saliency map in a single network forward pass. Though being very efficient, it is arduous for these methods to detect salient objects of different scales or salient regions with weak semantic information. In this paper, we develop hybrid contrast-oriented deep neural networks to overcome the aforementioned limitations. Each of our deep networks is composed of two complementary components, including a fully convolutional stream for dense prediction and a segment-level spatial pooling stream for sparse saliency inference. We further propose an attentional module that learns weight maps for fusing the two saliency predictions from these two streams. A tailored alternate scheme is designed to train these deep networks by fine-tuning pre-trained baseline models. Finally, a customized fully connected CRF model incorporating a salient contour feature embedding can be optionally applied as a post-processing step to improve spatial coherence and contour positioning in the fused result from these two streams. Extensive experiments on six benchmark datasets demonstrate that our proposed model can significantly outperform the state of the art in terms of all popular evaluation metrics.
This paper proposes an Agile Aggregating Multi-Level feaTure framework (Agile Amulet) for salient object detection. The Agile Amulet builds on previous works to predict saliency maps using multi-level convolutional features. Compared to previous works, Agile Amulet employs some key innovations to improve training and testing speed while also increase prediction accuracy. More specifically, we first introduce a contextual attention module that can rapidly highlight most salient objects or regions with contextual pyramids. Thus, it effectively guides the learning of low-layer convolutional features and tells the backbone network where to look. The contextual attention module is a fully convolutional mechanism that simultaneously learns complementary features and predicts saliency scores at each pixel. In addition, we propose a novel method to aggregate multi-level deep convolutional features. As a result, we are able to use the integrated side-output features of pre-trained convolutional networks alone, which significantly reduces the model parameters leading to a model size of 67 MB, about half of Amulet. Compared to other deep learning based saliency methods, Agile Amulet is of much lighter-weight, runs faster (30 fps in real-time) and achieves higher performance on seven public benchmarks in terms of both quantitative and qualitative evaluation.