The problem of Approximate Nearest Neighbor (ANN) search is fundamental in computer science and has benefited from significant progress in the past couple of decades. However, most work has been devoted to pointsets whereas complex shapes have not been sufficiently treated. Here, we focus on distance functions between discretized curves in Euclidean space: they appear in a wide range of applications, from road segments to time-series in general dimension. For $\ell_p$-products of Euclidean metrics, for any $p$, we design simple and efficient data structures for ANN, based on randomized projections, which are of independent interest. They serve to solve proximity problems under a notion of distance between discretized curves, which generalizes both discrete Fr\'echet and Dynamic Time Warping distances. These are the most popular and practical approaches to comparing such curves. We offer the first data structures and query algorithms for ANN with arbitrarily good approximation factor, at the expense of increasing space usage and preprocessing time over existing methods. Query time complexity is comparable or significantly improved by our algorithms, our algorithm is especially efficient when the length of the curves is bounded.

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人工神经网络(Artificial Neural Network,即ANN ),是20世纪80 年代以来人工智能领域兴起的研究热点。它从信息处理角度对人脑神经元网络进行抽象, 建立某种简单模型,按不同的连接方式组成不同的网络。在工程与学术界也常直接简称为神经网络或类神经网络。神经网络是一种运算模型,由大量的节点(或称神经元)之间相互联接构成。每个节点代表一种特定的输出函数,称为激励函数(activation function)。每两个节点间的连接都代表一个对于通过该连接信号的加权值,称之为权重,这相当于人工神经网络的记忆。网络的输出则依网络的连接方式,权重值和激励函数的不同而不同。而网络自身通常都是对自然界某种算法或者函数的逼近,也可能是对一种逻辑策略的表达。 最近十多年来,人工神经网络的研究工作不断深入,已经取得了很大的进展,其在模式识别、智能机器人、自动控制、预测估计、生物、医学、经济等领域已成功地解决了许多现代计算机难以解决的实际问题,表现出了良好的智能特性。

Since deep neural networks were developed, they have made huge contributions to everyday lives. Machine learning provides more rational advice than humans are capable of in almost every aspect of daily life. However, despite this achievement, the design and training of neural networks are still challenging and unpredictable procedures. To lower the technical thresholds for common users, automated hyper-parameter optimization (HPO) has become a popular topic in both academic and industrial areas. This paper provides a review of the most essential topics on HPO. The first section introduces the key hyper-parameters related to model training and structure, and discusses their importance and methods to define the value range. Then, the research focuses on major optimization algorithms and their applicability, covering their efficiency and accuracy especially for deep learning networks. This study next reviews major services and toolkits for HPO, comparing their support for state-of-the-art searching algorithms, feasibility with major deep learning frameworks, and extensibility for new modules designed by users. The paper concludes with problems that exist when HPO is applied to deep learning, a comparison between optimization algorithms, and prominent approaches for model evaluation with limited computational resources.

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In this paper, we present a comprehensive review of the imbalance problems in object detection. To analyze the problems in a systematic manner, we introduce a problem-based taxonomy. Following this taxonomy, we discuss each problem in depth and present a unifying yet critical perspective on the solutions in the literature. In addition, we identify major open issues regarding the existing imbalance problems as well as imbalance problems that have not been discussed before. Moreover, in order to keep our review up to date, we provide an accompanying webpage which catalogs papers addressing imbalance problems, according to our problem-based taxonomy. Researchers can track newer studies on this webpage available at: https://github.com/kemaloksuz/ObjectDetectionImbalance .

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Generative adversarial nets (GANs) have generated a lot of excitement. Despite their popularity, they exhibit a number of well-documented issues in practice, which apparently contradict theoretical guarantees. A number of enlightening papers have pointed out that these issues arise from unjustified assumptions that are commonly made, but the message seems to have been lost amid the optimism of recent years. We believe the identified problems deserve more attention, and highlight the implications on both the properties of GANs and the trajectory of research on probabilistic models. We recently proposed an alternative method that sidesteps these problems.

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This work focuses on combining nonparametric topic models with Auto-Encoding Variational Bayes (AEVB). Specifically, we first propose iTM-VAE, where the topics are treated as trainable parameters and the document-specific topic proportions are obtained by a stick-breaking construction. The inference of iTM-VAE is modeled by neural networks such that it can be computed in a simple feed-forward manner. We also describe how to introduce a hyper-prior into iTM-VAE so as to model the uncertainty of the prior parameter. Actually, the hyper-prior technique is quite general and we show that it can be applied to other AEVB based models to alleviate the {\it collapse-to-prior} problem elegantly. Moreover, we also propose HiTM-VAE, where the document-specific topic distributions are generated in a hierarchical manner. HiTM-VAE is even more flexible and can generate topic distributions with better variability. Experimental results on 20News and Reuters RCV1-V2 datasets show that the proposed models outperform the state-of-the-art baselines significantly. The advantages of the hyper-prior technique and the hierarchical model construction are also confirmed by experiments.

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Many problems in areas as diverse as recommendation systems, social network analysis, semantic search, and distributed root cause analysis can be modeled as pattern search on labeled graphs (also called "heterogeneous information networks" or HINs). Given a large graph and a query pattern with node and edge label constraints, a fundamental challenge is to nd the top-k matches ac- cording to a ranking function over edge and node weights. For users, it is di cult to select value k . We therefore propose the novel notion of an any-k ranking algorithm: for a given time budget, re- turn as many of the top-ranked results as possible. Then, given additional time, produce the next lower-ranked results quickly as well. It can be stopped anytime, but may have to continues until all results are returned. This paper focuses on acyclic patterns over arbitrary labeled graphs. We are interested in practical algorithms that effectively exploit (1) properties of heterogeneous networks, in particular selective constraints on labels, and (2) that the users often explore only a fraction of the top-ranked results. Our solution, KARPET, carefully integrates aggressive pruning that leverages the acyclic nature of the query, and incremental guided search. It enables us to prove strong non-trivial time and space guarantees, which is generally considered very hard for this type of graph search problem. Through experimental studies we show that KARPET achieves running times in the order of milliseconds for tree patterns on large networks with millions of nodes and edges.

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Clustering and classification critically rely on distance metrics that provide meaningful comparisons between data points. We present mixed-integer optimization approaches to find optimal distance metrics that generalize the Mahalanobis metric extensively studied in the literature. Additionally, we generalize and improve upon leading methods by removing reliance on pre-designated "target neighbors," "triplets," and "similarity pairs." Another salient feature of our method is its ability to enable active learning by recommending precise regions to sample after an optimal metric is computed to improve classification performance. This targeted acquisition can significantly reduce computational burden by ensuring training data completeness, representativeness, and economy. We demonstrate classification and computational performance of the algorithms through several simple and intuitive examples, followed by results on real image and medical datasets.

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Deep distance metric learning (DDML), which is proposed to learn image similarity metrics in an end-to-end manner based on the convolution neural network, has achieved encouraging results in many computer vision tasks.$L2$-normalization in the embedding space has been used to improve the performance of several DDML methods. However, the commonly used Euclidean distance is no longer an accurate metric for $L2$-normalized embedding space, i.e., a hyper-sphere. Another challenge of current DDML methods is that their loss functions are usually based on rigid data formats, such as the triplet tuple. Thus, an extra process is needed to prepare data in specific formats. In addition, their losses are obtained from a limited number of samples, which leads to a lack of the global view of the embedding space. In this paper, we replace the Euclidean distance with the cosine similarity to better utilize the $L2$-normalization, which is able to attenuate the curse of dimensionality. More specifically, a novel loss function based on the von Mises-Fisher distribution is proposed to learn a compact hyper-spherical embedding space. Moreover, a new efficient learning algorithm is developed to better capture the global structure of the embedding space. Experiments for both classification and retrieval tasks on several standard datasets show that our method achieves state-of-the-art performance with a simpler training procedure. Furthermore, we demonstrate that, even with a small number of convolutional layers, our model can still obtain significantly better classification performance than the widely used softmax loss.

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Knowledge Graph Embedding methods aim at representing entities and relations in a knowledge base as points or vectors in a continuous vector space. Several approaches using embeddings have shown promising results on tasks such as link prediction, entity recommendation, question answering, and triplet classification. However, only a few methods can compute low-dimensional embeddings of very large knowledge bases. In this paper, we propose KG2Vec, a novel approach to Knowledge Graph Embedding based on the skip-gram model. Instead of using a predefined scoring function, we learn it relying on Long Short-Term Memories. We evaluated the goodness of our embeddings on knowledge graph completion and show that KG2Vec is comparable to the quality of the scalable state-of-the-art approaches and can process large graphs by parsing more than a hundred million triples in less than 6 hours on common hardware.

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In this paper, we propose a listwise approach for constructing user-specific rankings in recommendation systems in a collaborative fashion. We contrast the listwise approach to previous pointwise and pairwise approaches, which are based on treating either each rating or each pairwise comparison as an independent instance respectively. By extending the work of (Cao et al. 2007), we cast listwise collaborative ranking as maximum likelihood under a permutation model which applies probability mass to permutations based on a low rank latent score matrix. We present a novel algorithm called SQL-Rank, which can accommodate ties and missing data and can run in linear time. We develop a theoretical framework for analyzing listwise ranking methods based on a novel representation theory for the permutation model. Applying this framework to collaborative ranking, we derive asymptotic statistical rates as the number of users and items grow together. We conclude by demonstrating that our SQL-Rank method often outperforms current state-of-the-art algorithms for implicit feedback such as Weighted-MF and BPR and achieve favorable results when compared to explicit feedback algorithms such as matrix factorization and collaborative ranking.

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We consider the task of learning the parameters of a {\em single} component of a mixture model, for the case when we are given {\em side information} about that component, we call this the "search problem" in mixture models. We would like to solve this with computational and sample complexity lower than solving the overall original problem, where one learns parameters of all components. Our main contributions are the development of a simple but general model for the notion of side information, and a corresponding simple matrix-based algorithm for solving the search problem in this general setting. We then specialize this model and algorithm to four common scenarios: Gaussian mixture models, LDA topic models, subspace clustering, and mixed linear regression. For each one of these we show that if (and only if) the side information is informative, we obtain parameter estimates with greater accuracy, and also improved computation complexity than existing moment based mixture model algorithms (e.g. tensor methods). We also illustrate several natural ways one can obtain such side information, for specific problem instances. Our experiments on real data sets (NY Times, Yelp, BSDS500) further demonstrate the practicality of our algorithms showing significant improvement in runtime and accuracy.

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