We propose an artificial life framework aimed at facilitating the emergence of intelligent organisms. In this framework there is no explicit notion of an agent: instead there is an environment made of atomic elements. These elements contain neural operations and interact through exchanges of information and through physics-like rules contained in the environment. We discuss how an evolutionary process can lead to the emergence of different organisms made of many such atomic elements which can coexist and thrive in the environment. We discuss how this forms the basis of a general AI generating algorithm. We provide a simplified implementation of such system and discuss what advances need to be made to scale it up further.
Generative adversarial networks (GANs) have enabled photorealistic image synthesis and editing. However, due to the high computational cost of large-scale generators (e.g., StyleGAN2), it usually takes seconds to see the results of a single edit on edge devices, prohibiting interactive user experience. In this paper, we take inspirations from modern rendering software and propose Anycost GAN for interactive natural image editing. We train the Anycost GAN to support elastic resolutions and channels for faster image generation at versatile speeds. Running subsets of the full generator produce outputs that are perceptually similar to the full generator, making them a good proxy for preview. By using sampling-based multi-resolution training, adaptive-channel training, and a generator-conditioned discriminator, the anycost generator can be evaluated at various configurations while achieving better image quality compared to separately trained models. Furthermore, we develop new encoder training and latent code optimization techniques to encourage consistency between the different sub-generators during image projection. Anycost GAN can be executed at various cost budgets (up to 10x computation reduction) and adapt to a wide range of hardware and latency requirements. When deployed on desktop CPUs and edge devices, our model can provide perceptually similar previews at 6-12x speedup, enabling interactive image editing. The code and demo are publicly available: https://github.com/mit-han-lab/anycost-gan.
Parallel-in-time methods, such as multigrid reduction-in-time (MGRIT) and Parareal, provide an attractive option for increasing concurrency when simulating time-dependent PDEs in modern high-performance computing environments. While these techniques have been very successful for parabolic equations, it has often been observed that their performance suffers dramatically when applied to advection-dominated problems or purely hyperbolic PDEs using standard rediscretization approaches on coarse grids. In this paper, we apply MGRIT or Parareal to the constant-coefficient linear advection equation, appealing to existing convergence theory to provide insight into the typically non-scalable or even divergent behavior of these solvers for this problem. To overcome these failings, we replace rediscretization on coarse grids with improved coarse-grid operators that are computed by applying optimization techniques to approximately minimize error estimates from the convergence theory. One of our main findings is that, in order to obtain fast convergence as for parabolic problems, coarse-grid operators should take into account the behavior of the hyperbolic problem by tracking the characteristic curves. Our approach is tested for schemes of various orders using explicit or implicit Runge-Kutta methods combined with upwind-finite-difference spatial discretizations. In all cases, we obtain scalable convergence in just a handful of iterations, with parallel tests also showing significant speed-ups over sequential time-stepping. Our insight of tracking characteristics on coarse grids provides a key idea for solving the long-standing problem of efficient parallel-in-time integration for hyperbolic PDEs.
Low-quality face image restoration is a popular research direction in today's computer vision field. It can be used as a pre-work for tasks such as face detection and face recognition. At present, there is a lot of work to solve the problem of low-quality faces under various environmental conditions. This paper mainly focuses on the restoration of motion-blurred faces. In increasingly abundant mobile scenes, the fast recovery of motion-blurred faces can bring highly effective speed improvements in tasks such as face matching. In order to achieve this goal, a deblurring method for motion-blurred facial image signals based on generative adversarial networks(GANs) is proposed. It uses an end-to-end method to train a sharp image generator, i.e., a processor for motion-blurred facial images. This paper introduce the processing progress of motion-blurred images, the development and changes of GANs and some basic concepts. After that, it give the details of network structure and training optimization design of the image processor. Then we conducted a motion blur image generation experiment on some general facial data set, and used the pairs of blurred and sharp face image data to perform the training and testing experiments of the processor GAN, and gave some visual displays. Finally, MTCNN is used to detect the faces of the image generated by the deblurring processor, and compare it with the result of the blurred image. From the results, the processing effect of the deblurring processor on the motion-blurred picture has a significant improvement both in terms of intuition and evaluation indicators of face detection.
Fuzzing is a technique widely used in vulnerability detection. The process usually involves writing effective fuzz driver programs, which, when done manually, can be extremely labor intensive. Previous attempts at automation leave much to be desired, in either degree of automation or quality of output. In this paper, we propose IntelliGen, a framework that constructs valid fuzz drivers automatically. First, IntelliGen determines a set of entry functions and evaluates their respective chance of exhibiting a vulnerability. Then, IntelliGen generates fuzz drivers for the entry functions through hierarchical parameter replacement and type inference. We implemented IntelliGen and evaluated its effectiveness on real-world programs selected from the Android Open-Source Project, Google's fuzzer-test-suite and industrial collaborators. IntelliGen covered on average 1.08X-2.03X more basic blocks and 1.36X-2.06X more paths over state-of-the-art fuzz driver synthesizers FUDGE and FuzzGen. IntelliGen performed on par with manually written drivers and found 10 more bugs.
Extended Berkeley Packet Filter (BPF) has emerged as a powerful method to extend packet-processing functionality in the Linux operating system. BPF allows users to write code in high-level languages like C or Rust and attach them to specific points in the kernel, such as the network device driver. To ensure safe execution of a user-developed BPF program in kernel context, Linux employs an in-kernel static checker, that only accepts the program if it can be shown to be crash-free and isolated from the rest of kernel memory. However, BPF programming is not easy. One, even modest-size BPF programs can be rejected by the kernel checker as they are construed to be too large to analyze. Two, the in-kernel static checker may incorrectly determine that an eBPF program exhibits unsafe behaviors. Three, even small performance optimizations to BPF code (e.g., 5% gains) must be meticulously hand-crafted by expert developers. Optimizing compilers for BPF are severely hampered because the kernel checker's safety considerations are incompatible with rule-based optimizations used in traditional compilers. We present K2, a program-synthesis-based compiler that automatically optimizes BPF bytecode with formal correctness and safety guarantees. K2 leverages stochastic search, a formalization of BPF in first-order logic, and several domain-specific techniques to accelerate equivalence checking of BPF programs. K2 produces code with 6-26% reduced size, reduces average latency by 13-85 $\mu$s in our setup, and improves the number of packets per second processed per core by 5% relative to clang -O3, across programs drawn from production systems at Cilium and the Linux kernel. BPF programs produced by K2 can pass the kernel checker.
Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) have recently achieved impressive results for many real-world applications, and many GAN variants have emerged with improvements in sample quality and training stability. However, they have not been well visualized or understood. How does a GAN represent our visual world internally? What causes the artifacts in GAN results? How do architectural choices affect GAN learning? Answering such questions could enable us to develop new insights and better models. In this work, we present an analytic framework to visualize and understand GANs at the unit-, object-, and scene-level. We first identify a group of interpretable units that are closely related to object concepts using a segmentation-based network dissection method. Then, we quantify the causal effect of interpretable units by measuring the ability of interventions to control objects in the output. We examine the contextual relationship between these units and their surroundings by inserting the discovered object concepts into new images. We show several practical applications enabled by our framework, from comparing internal representations across different layers, models, and datasets, to improving GANs by locating and removing artifact-causing units, to interactively manipulating objects in a scene. We provide open source interpretation tools to help researchers and practitioners better understand their GAN models.
This paper presents a new multi-objective deep reinforcement learning (MODRL) framework based on deep Q-networks. We propose the use of linear and non-linear methods to develop the MODRL framework that includes both single-policy and multi-policy strategies. The experimental results on two benchmark problems including the two-objective deep sea treasure environment and the three-objective mountain car problem indicate that the proposed framework is able to converge to the optimal Pareto solutions effectively. The proposed framework is generic, which allows implementation of different deep reinforcement learning algorithms in different complex environments. This therefore overcomes many difficulties involved with standard multi-objective reinforcement learning (MORL) methods existing in the current literature. The framework creates a platform as a testbed environment to develop methods for solving various problems associated with the current MORL. Details of the framework implementation can be referred to http://www.deakin.edu.au/~thanhthi/drl.htm.
Recently, generative adversarial networks (GANs) have shown promising performance in generating realistic images. However, they often struggle in learning complex underlying modalities in a given dataset, resulting in poor-quality generated images. To mitigate this problem, we present a novel approach called mixture of experts GAN (MEGAN), an ensemble approach of multiple generator networks. Each generator network in MEGAN specializes in generating images with a particular subset of modalities, e.g., an image class. Instead of incorporating a separate step of handcrafted clustering of multiple modalities, our proposed model is trained through an end-to-end learning of multiple generators via gating networks, which is responsible for choosing the appropriate generator network for a given condition. We adopt the categorical reparameterization trick for a categorical decision to be made in selecting a generator while maintaining the flow of the gradients. We demonstrate that individual generators learn different and salient subparts of the data and achieve a multiscale structural similarity (MS-SSIM) score of 0.2470 for CelebA and a competitive unsupervised inception score of 8.33 in CIFAR-10.
Can an algorithm create original and compelling fashion designs to serve as an inspirational assistant? To help answer this question, we design and investigate different image generation models associated with different loss functions to boost creativity in fashion generation. The dimensions of our explorations include: (i) different Generative Adversarial Networks architectures that start from noise vectors to generate fashion items, (ii) a new loss function that encourages creativity, and (iii) a generation process following the key elements of fashion design (disentangling shape and texture makers). A key challenge of this study is the evaluation of generated designs and the retrieval of best ones, hence we put together an evaluation protocol associating automatic metrics and human experimental studies that we hope will help ease future research. We show that our proposed creativity loss yields better overall appreciation than the one employed in Creative Adversarial Networks. In the end, about 61% of our images are thought to be created by human designers rather than by a computer while also being considered original per our human subject experiments, and our proposed loss scores the highest compared to existing losses in both novelty and likability.
We present DeblurGAN, an end-to-end learned method for motion deblurring. The learning is based on a conditional GAN and the content loss . DeblurGAN achieves state-of-the art performance both in the structural similarity measure and visual appearance. The quality of the deblurring model is also evaluated in a novel way on a real-world problem -- object detection on (de-)blurred images. The method is 5 times faster than the closest competitor -- DeepDeblur. We also introduce a novel method for generating synthetic motion blurred images from sharp ones, allowing realistic dataset augmentation. The model, code and the dataset are available at https://github.com/KupynOrest/DeblurGAN