This paper proposes a generic method to learn interpretable convolutional filters in a deep convolutional neural network (CNN) for object classification, where each interpretable filter encodes features of a specific object part. Our method does not require additional annotations of object parts or textures for supervision. Instead, we use the same training data as traditional CNNs. Our method automatically assigns each interpretable filter in a high conv-layer with an object part of a certain category during the learning process. Such explicit knowledge representations in conv-layers of CNN help people clarify the logic encoded in the CNN, i.e., answering what patterns the CNN extracts from an input image and uses for prediction. We have tested our method using different benchmark CNNs with various structures to demonstrate the broad applicability of our method. Experiments have shown that our interpretable filters are much more semantically meaningful than traditional filters.
Generating high-quality and interpretable adversarial examples in the text domain is a much more daunting task than it is in the image domain. This is due partly to the discrete nature of text, partly to the problem of ensuring that the adversarial examples are still probable and interpretable, and partly to the problem of maintaining label invariance under input perturbations. In order to address some of these challenges, we introduce sparse projected gradient descent (SPGD), a new approach to crafting interpretable adversarial examples for text. SPGD imposes a directional regularization constraint on input perturbations by projecting them onto the directions to nearby word embeddings with highest cosine similarities. This constraint ensures that perturbations move each word embedding in an interpretable direction (i.e., towards another nearby word embedding). Moreover, SPGD imposes a sparsity constraint on perturbations at the sentence level by ignoring word-embedding perturbations whose norms are below a certain threshold. This constraint ensures that our method changes only a few words per sequence, leading to higher quality adversarial examples. Our experiments with the IMDB movie review dataset show that the proposed SPGD method improves adversarial example interpretability and likelihood (evaluated by average per-word perplexity) compared to state-of-the-art methods, while suffering little to no loss in training performance.
This paper introduces a graphical model, namely an explanatory graph, which reveals the knowledge hierarchy hidden inside conv-layers of a pre-trained CNN. Each filter in a conv-layer of a CNN for object classification usually represents a mixture of object parts. We develop a simple yet effective method to disentangle object-part pattern components from each filter. We construct an explanatory graph to organize the mined part patterns, where a node represents a part pattern, and each edge encodes co-activation relationships and spatial relationships between patterns. More crucially, given a pre-trained CNN, the explanatory graph is learned without a need of annotating object parts. Experiments show that each graph node consistently represented the same object part through different images, which boosted the transferability of CNN features. We transferred part patterns in the explanatory graph to the task of part localization, and our method significantly outperformed other approaches.
In structure learning, the output is generally a structure that is used as supervision information to achieve good performance. Considering the interpretation of deep learning models has raised extended attention these years, it will be beneficial if we can learn an interpretable structure from deep learning models. In this paper, we focus on Recurrent Neural Networks (RNNs) whose inner mechanism is still not clearly understood. We find that Finite State Automaton (FSA) that processes sequential data has more interpretable inner mechanism and can be learned from RNNs as the interpretable structure. We propose two methods to learn FSA from RNN based on two different clustering methods. We first give the graphical illustration of FSA for human beings to follow, which shows the interpretability. From the FSA's point of view, we then analyze how the performance of RNNs are affected by the number of gates, as well as the semantic meaning behind the transition of numerical hidden states. Our results suggest that RNNs with simple gated structure such as Minimal Gated Unit (MGU) is more desirable and the transitions in FSA leading to specific classification result are associated with corresponding words which are understandable by human beings.
Visual Question answering is a challenging problem requiring a combination of concepts from Computer Vision and Natural Language Processing. Most existing approaches use a two streams strategy, computing image and question features that are consequently merged using a variety of techniques. Nonetheless, very few rely on higher level image representations, which allow to capture semantic and spatial relationships. In this paper, we propose a novel graph-based approach for Visual Question Answering. Our method combines a graph learner module, which learns a question specific graph representation of the input image, with the recent concept of graph convolutions, aiming to learn image representations that capture question specific interactions. We test our approach on the VQA v2 dataset using a simple baseline architecture enhanced by the proposed graph learner module. We obtain state of the art results with 65.77% accuracy and demonstrate the interpretability of the proposed method.
This paper proposes a method to modify traditional convolutional neural networks (CNNs) into interpretable CNNs, in order to clarify knowledge representations in high conv-layers of CNNs. In an interpretable CNN, each filter in a high conv-layer represents a certain object part. We do not need any annotations of object parts or textures to supervise the learning process. Instead, the interpretable CNN automatically assigns each filter in a high conv-layer with an object part during the learning process. Our method can be applied to different types of CNNs with different structures. The clear knowledge representation in an interpretable CNN can help people understand the logics inside a CNN, i.e., based on which patterns the CNN makes the decision. Experiments showed that filters in an interpretable CNN were more semantically meaningful than those in traditional CNNs.
This paper reviews recent studies in understanding neural-network representations and learning neural networks with interpretable/disentangled middle-layer representations. Although deep neural networks have exhibited superior performance in various tasks, the interpretability is always the Achilles' heel of deep neural networks. At present, deep neural networks obtain high discrimination power at the cost of low interpretability of their black-box representations. We believe that high model interpretability may help people to break several bottlenecks of deep learning, e.g., learning from very few annotations, learning via human-computer communications at the semantic level, and semantically debugging network representations. We focus on convolutional neural networks (CNNs), and we revisit the visualization of CNN representations, methods of diagnosing representations of pre-trained CNNs, approaches for disentangling pre-trained CNN representations, learning of CNNs with disentangled representations, and middle-to-end learning based on model interpretability. Finally, we discuss prospective trends in explainable artificial intelligence.
This paper learns a graphical model, namely an explanatory graph, which reveals the knowledge hierarchy hidden inside a pre-trained CNN. Considering that each filter in a conv-layer of a pre-trained CNN usually represents a mixture of object parts, we propose a simple yet efficient method to automatically disentangles different part patterns from each filter, and construct an explanatory graph. In the explanatory graph, each node represents a part pattern, and each edge encodes co-activation relationships and spatial relationships between patterns. More importantly, we learn the explanatory graph for a pre-trained CNN in an unsupervised manner, i.e., without a need of annotating object parts. Experiments show that each graph node consistently represents the same object part through different images. We transfer part patterns in the explanatory graph to the task of part localization, and our method significantly outperforms other approaches.
This paper presents a method of learning qualitatively interpretable models in object detection using popular two-stage region-based ConvNet detection systems (i.e., R-CNN). R-CNN consists of a region proposal network and a RoI (Region-of-Interest) prediction network.By interpretable models, we focus on weakly-supervised extractive rationale generation, that is learning to unfold latent discriminative part configurations of object instances automatically and simultaneously in detection without using any supervision for part configurations. We utilize a top-down hierarchical and compositional grammar model embedded in a directed acyclic AND-OR Graph (AOG) to explore and unfold the space of latent part configurations of RoIs. We propose an AOGParsing operator to substitute the RoIPooling operator widely used in R-CNN, so the proposed method is applicable to many state-of-the-art ConvNet based detection systems. The AOGParsing operator aims to harness both the explainable rigor of top-down hierarchical and compositional grammar models and the discriminative power of bottom-up deep neural networks through end-to-end training. In detection, a bounding box is interpreted by the best parse tree derived from the AOG on-the-fly, which is treated as the extractive rationale generated for interpreting detection. In learning, we propose a folding-unfolding method to train the AOG and ConvNet end-to-end. In experiments, we build on top of the R-FCN and test the proposed method on the PASCAL VOC 2007 and 2012 datasets with performance comparable to state-of-the-art methods.
While deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs) have shown a great success in single-label image classification, it is important to note that real world images generally contain multiple labels, which could correspond to different objects, scenes, actions and attributes in an image. Traditional approaches to multi-label image classification learn independent classifiers for each category and employ ranking or thresholding on the classification results. These techniques, although working well, fail to explicitly exploit the label dependencies in an image. In this paper, we utilize recurrent neural networks (RNNs) to address this problem. Combined with CNNs, the proposed CNN-RNN framework learns a joint image-label embedding to characterize the semantic label dependency as well as the image-label relevance, and it can be trained end-to-end from scratch to integrate both information in a unified framework. Experimental results on public benchmark datasets demonstrate that the proposed architecture achieves better performance than the state-of-the-art multi-label classification model