We propose BERTScore, an automatic evaluation metric for text generation. Analogous to common metrics, \method computes a similarity score for each token in the candidate sentence with each token in the reference. However, instead of looking for exact matches, we compute similarity using contextualized BERT embeddings. We evaluate on several machine translation and image captioning benchmarks, and show that BERTScore correlates better with human judgments than existing metrics, often significantly outperforming even task-specific supervised metrics.

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BERT全称Bidirectional Encoder Representations from Transformers,是预训练语言表示的方法,可以在大型文本语料库(如维基百科)上训练通用的“语言理解”模型,然后将该模型用于下游NLP任务,比如机器翻译、问答。

A machine learning model was developed to automatically generate questions from Wikipedia passages using transformers, an attention-based model eschewing the paradigm of existing recurrent neural networks (RNNs). The model was trained on the inverted Stanford Question Answering Dataset (SQuAD), which is a reading comprehension dataset consisting of 100,000+ questions posed by crowdworkers on a set of Wikipedia articles. After training, the question generation model is able to generate simple questions relevant to unseen passages and answers containing an average of 8 words per question. The word error rate (WER) was used as a metric to compare the similarity between SQuAD questions and the model-generated questions. Although the high average WER suggests that the questions generated differ from the original SQuAD questions, the questions generated are mostly grammatically correct and plausible in their own right.

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In this paper, we propose Latent Relation Language Models (LRLMs), a class of language models that parameterizes the joint distribution over the words in a document and the entities that occur therein via knowledge graph relations. This model has a number of attractive properties: it not only improves language modeling performance, but is also able to annotate the posterior probability of entity spans for a given text through relations. Experiments demonstrate empirical improvements over both a word-based baseline language model and a previous approach that incorporates knowledge graph information. Qualitative analysis further demonstrates the proposed model's ability to learn to predict appropriate relations in context.

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Extreme multi-label text classification (XMC) aims to tag each input text with the most relevant labels from an extremely large label set, such as those that arise in product categorization and e-commerce recommendation. Recently, pretrained language representation models such as BERT achieve remarkable state-of-the-art performance across a wide range of NLP tasks including sentence classification among small label sets (typically fewer than thousands). Indeed, there are several challenges in applying BERT to the XMC problem. The main challenges are: (i) the difficulty of capturing dependencies and correlations among labels, whose features may come from heterogeneous sources, and (ii) the tractability to scale to the extreme label setting as the model size can be very large and scale linearly with the size of the output space. To overcome these challenges, we propose X-BERT, the first feasible attempt to finetune BERT models for a scalable solution to the XMC problem. Specifically, X-BERT leverages both the label and document text to build label representations, which induces semantic label clusters in order to better model label dependencies. At the heart of X-BERT is finetuning BERT models to capture the contextual relations between input text and the induced label clusters. Finally, an ensemble of the different BERT models trained on heterogeneous label clusters leads to our best final model. Empirically, on a Wiki dataset with around 0.5 million labels, X-BERT achieves new state-of-the-art results where the precision@1 reaches 67:80%, a substantial improvement over 32.58%/60.91% of deep learning baseline fastText and competing XMC approach Parabel, respectively. This amounts to a 11.31% relative improvement over Parabel, which is indeed significant since the recent approach SLICE only has 5.53% relative improvement.

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With the capability of modeling bidirectional contexts, denoising autoencoding based pretraining like BERT achieves better performance than pretraining approaches based on autoregressive language modeling. However, relying on corrupting the input with masks, BERT neglects dependency between the masked positions and suffers from a pretrain-finetune discrepancy. In light of these pros and cons, we propose XLNet, a generalized autoregressive pretraining method that (1) enables learning bidirectional contexts by maximizing the expected likelihood over all permutations of the factorization order and (2) overcomes the limitations of BERT thanks to its autoregressive formulation. Furthermore, XLNet integrates ideas from Transformer-XL, the state-of-the-art autoregressive model, into pretraining. Empirically, XLNet outperforms BERT on 20 tasks, often by a large margin, and achieves state-of-the-art results on 18 tasks including question answering, natural language inference, sentiment analysis, and document ranking.

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Relation classification is an important NLP task to extract relations between entities. The state-of-the-art methods for relation classification are primarily based on Convolutional or Recurrent Neural Networks. Recently, the pre-trained BERT model achieves very successful results in many NLP classification / sequence labeling tasks. Relation classification differs from those tasks in that it relies on information of both the sentence and the two target entities. In this paper, we propose a model that both leverages the pre-trained BERT language model and incorporates information from the target entities to tackle the relation classification task. We locate the target entities and transfer the information through the pre-trained architecture and incorporate the corresponding encoding of the two entities. We achieve significant improvement over the state-of-the-art method on the SemEval-2010 task 8 relational dataset.

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Neural question generation (NQG) is the task of generating a question from a given passage with deep neural networks. Previous NQG models suffer from a problem that a significant proportion of the generated questions include words in the question target, resulting in the generation of unintended questions. In this paper, we propose answer-separated seq2seq, which better utilizes the information from both the passage and the target answer. By replacing the target answer in the original passage with a special token, our model learns to identify which interrogative word should be used. We also propose a new module termed keyword-net, which helps the model better capture the key information in the target answer and generate an appropriate question. Experimental results demonstrate that our answer separation method significantly reduces the number of improper questions which include answers. Consequently, our model significantly outperforms previous state-of-the-art NQG models.

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Automatic generation of paraphrases from a given sentence is an important yet challenging task in natural language processing (NLP), and plays a key role in a number of applications such as question answering, search, and dialogue. In this paper, we present a deep reinforcement learning approach to paraphrase generation. Specifically, we propose a new framework for the task, which consists of a \textit{generator} and an \textit{evaluator}, both of which are learned from data. The generator, built as a sequence-to-sequence learning model, can produce paraphrases given a sentence. The evaluator, constructed as a deep matching model, can judge whether two sentences are paraphrases of each other. The generator is first trained by deep learning and then further fine-tuned by reinforcement learning in which the reward is given by the evaluator. For the learning of the evaluator, we propose two methods based on supervised learning and inverse reinforcement learning respectively, depending on the type of available training data. Empirical study shows that the learned evaluator can guide the generator to produce more accurate paraphrases. Experimental results demonstrate the proposed models (the generators) outperform the state-of-the-art methods in paraphrase generation in both automatic evaluation and human evaluation.

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Sentence representations can capture a wide range of information that cannot be captured by local features based on character or word N-grams. This paper examines the usefulness of universal sentence representations for evaluating the quality of machine translation. Although it is difficult to train sentence representations using small-scale translation datasets with manual evaluation, sentence representations trained from large-scale data in other tasks can improve the automatic evaluation of machine translation. Experimental results of the WMT-2016 dataset show that the proposed method achieves state-of-the-art performance with sentence representation features only.

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In this paper, we propose a novel conditional generative adversarial nets based image captioning framework as an extension of traditional reinforcement learning (RL) based encoder-decoder architecture. To deal with the inconsistent evaluation problem between objective language metrics and subjective human judgements, we are inspired to design some "discriminator" networks to automatically and progressively determine whether generated caption is human described or machine generated. Two kinds of discriminator architecture (CNN and RNN based structures) are introduced since each has its own advantages. The proposed algorithm is generic so that it can enhance any existing encoder-decoder based image captioning model and we show that conventional RL training method is just a special case of our framework. Empirically, we show consistent improvements over all language evaluation metrics for different stage-of-the-art image captioning models.

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In this paper, we study the problem of image-text matching. Inferring the latent semantic alignment between objects or other salient stuffs (e.g. snow, sky, lawn) and the corresponding words in sentences allows to capture fine-grained interplay between vision and language, and makes image-text matching more interpretable. Prior works either simply aggregate the similarity of all possible pairs of regions and words without attending differentially to more and less important words or regions, or use a multi-step attentional process to capture limited number of semantic alignments which is less interpretable. In this paper, we present Stacked Cross Attention to discover the full latent alignments using both image regions and words in sentence as context and infer the image-text similarity. Our approach achieves the state-of-the-art results on the MS-COCO and Flickr30K datasets. On Flickr30K, our approach outperforms the current best methods by 22.1% in text retrieval from image query, and 18.2% in image retrieval with text query (based on Recall@1). On MS-COCO, our approach improves sentence retrieval by 17.8% and image retrieval by 16.6% (based on Recall@1 using the 5K test set).

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