In this paper, we present CogNet, a knowledge base (KB) dedicated to integrating three types of knowledge: (1) linguistic knowledge from FrameNet, which schematically describes situations, objects and events. (2) world knowledge from YAGO, Freebase, DBpedia and Wikidata, which provides explicit knowledge about specific instances. (3) commonsense knowledge from ConceptNet, which describes implicit general facts. To model these different types of knowledge consistently, we introduce a three-level unified frame-styled representation architecture. To integrate free-form commonsense knowledge with other structured knowledge, we propose a strategy that combines automated labeling and crowdsourced annotation. At present, CogNet integrates 1,000+ semantic frames from linguistic KBs, 20,000,000+ frame instances from world KBs, as well as 90,000+ commonsense assertions from commonsense KBs. All these data can be easily queried and explored on our online platform, and free to download in RDF format for utilization under a CC-BY-SA 4.0 license. The demo and data are available at http://cognet.top/.
Sources of commonsense knowledge aim to support applications in natural language understanding, computer vision, and knowledge graphs. These sources contain complementary knowledge to each other, which makes their integration desired. Yet, such integration is not trivial because of their different foci, modeling approaches, and sparse overlap. In this paper, we propose to consolidate commonsense knowledge by following five principles. We apply these principles to combine seven key sources into a first integrated CommonSense Knowledge Graph (CSKG). We perform analysis of CSKG and its various text and graph embeddings, showing that CSKG is a well-connected graph and that its embeddings provide a useful entry point to the graph. Moreover, we show the impact of CSKG as a source for reasoning evidence retrieval, and for pre-training language models for generalizable downstream reasoning. CSKG and all its embeddings are made publicly available to support further research on commonsense knowledge integration and reasoning.
Commonsense knowledge acquisition is a key problem for artificial intelligence. Conventional methods of acquiring commonsense knowledge generally require laborious and costly human annotations, which are not feasible on a large scale. In this paper, we explore a practical way of mining commonsense knowledge from linguistic graphs, with the goal of transferring cheap knowledge obtained with linguistic patterns into expensive commonsense knowledge. The result is a conversion of ASER [Zhang et al., 2020], a large-scale selectional preference knowledge resource, into TransOMCS, of the same representation as ConceptNet [Liu and Singh, 2004] but two orders of magnitude larger. Experimental results demonstrate the transferability of linguistic knowledge to commonsense knowledge and the effectiveness of the proposed approach in terms of quantity, novelty, and quality. TransOMCS is publicly available at: https://github.com/HKUST-KnowComp/TransOMCS.
In this paper we provide a comprehensive introduction to knowledge graphs, which have recently garnered significant attention from both industry and academia in scenarios that require exploiting diverse, dynamic, large-scale collections of data. After a general introduction, we motivate and contrast various graph-based data models and query languages that are used for knowledge graphs. We discuss the roles of schema, identity, and context in knowledge graphs. We explain how knowledge can be represented and extracted using a combination of deductive and inductive techniques. We summarise methods for the creation, enrichment, quality assessment, refinement, and publication of knowledge graphs. We provide an overview of prominent open knowledge graphs and enterprise knowledge graphs, their applications, and how they use the aforementioned techniques. We conclude with high-level future research directions for knowledge graphs.
Scene graphs are powerful representations that encode images into their abstract semantic elements, i.e, objects and their interactions, which facilitates visual comprehension and explainable reasoning. On the other hand, commonsense knowledge graphs are rich repositories that encode how the world is structured, and how general concepts interact. In this paper, we present a unified formulation of these two constructs, where a scene graph is seen as an image-conditioned instantiation of a commonsense knowledge graph. Based on this new perspective, we re-formulate scene graph generation as the inference of a bridge between the scene and commonsense graphs, where each entity or predicate instance in the scene graph has to be linked to its corresponding entity or predicate class in the commonsense graph. To this end, we propose a heterogeneous graph inference framework allowing to exploit the rich structure within the scene and commonsense at the same time. Through extensive experiments, we show the proposed method achieves significant improvement over the state of the art.
Automatic KB completion for commonsense knowledge graphs (e.g., ATOMIC and ConceptNet) poses unique challenges compared to the much studied conventional knowledge bases (e.g., Freebase). Commonsense knowledge graphs use free-form text to represent nodes, resulting in orders of magnitude more nodes compared to conventional KBs (18x more nodes in ATOMIC compared to Freebase (FB15K-237)). Importantly, this implies significantly sparser graph structures - a major challenge for existing KB completion methods that assume densely connected graphs over a relatively smaller set of nodes. In this paper, we present novel KB completion models that can address these challenges by exploiting the structural and semantic context of nodes. Specifically, we investigate two key ideas: (1) learning from local graph structure, using graph convolutional networks and automatic graph densification and (2) transfer learning from pre-trained language models to knowledge graphs for enhanced contextual representation of knowledge. We describe our method to incorporate information from both these sources in a joint model and provide the first empirical results for KB completion on ATOMIC and evaluation with ranking metrics on ConceptNet. Our results demonstrate the effectiveness of language model representations in boosting link prediction performance and the advantages of learning from local graph structure (+1.5 points in MRR for ConceptNet) when training on subgraphs for computational efficiency. Further analysis on model predictions shines light on the types of commonsense knowledge that language models capture well.
Recent progress in pretraining language models on large textual corpora led to a surge of improvements for downstream NLP tasks. Whilst learning linguistic knowledge, these models may also be storing relational knowledge present in the training data, and may be able to answer queries structured as "fill-in-the-blank" cloze statements. Language models have many advantages over structured knowledge bases: they require no schema engineering, allow practitioners to query about an open class of relations, are easy to extend to more data, and require no human supervision to train. We present an in-depth analysis of the relational knowledge already present (without fine-tuning) in a wide range of state-of-the-art pretrained language models. We find that (i) without fine-tuning, BERT contains relational knowledge competitive with traditional NLP methods that have some access to oracle knowledge, (ii) BERT also does remarkably well on open-domain question answering against a supervised baseline, and (iii) certain types of factual knowledge are learned much more readily than others by standard language model pretraining approaches. The surprisingly strong ability of these models to recall factual knowledge without any fine-tuning demonstrates their potential as unsupervised open-domain QA systems. The code to reproduce our analysis is available at https://github.com/facebookresearch/LAMA.
We explore the use of a knowledge graphs, that capture general or commonsense knowledge, to augment the information extracted from images by the state-of-the-art methods for image captioning. The results of our experiments, on several benchmark data sets such as MS COCO, as measured by CIDEr-D, a performance metric for image captioning, show that the variants of the state-of-the-art methods for image captioning that make use of the information extracted from knowledge graphs can substantially outperform those that rely solely on the information extracted from images.
Commonsense knowledge is paramount to enable intelligent systems. Typically, it is characterized as being implicit and ambiguous, hindering thereby the automation of its acquisition. To address these challenges, this paper presents semantically enhanced models to enable reasoning through resolving part of commonsense ambiguity. The proposed models enhance in a knowledge graph embedding (KGE) framework for knowledge base completion. Experimental results show the effectiveness of the new semantic models in commonsense reasoning.
Knowledge graphs (KGs) model facts about the world, they consist of nodes (entities such as companies and people) that are connected by edges (relations such as founderOf). Facts encoded in KGs are frequently used by search applications to augment result pages. When presenting a KG fact to the user, providing other facts that are pertinent to that main fact can enrich the user experience and support exploratory information needs. KG fact contextualization is the task of augmenting a given KG fact with additional and useful KG facts. The task is challenging because of the large size of KGs, discovering other relevant facts even in a small neighborhood of the given fact results in an enormous amount of candidates. We introduce a neural fact contextualization method (NFCM) to address the KG fact contextualization task. NFCM first generates a set of candidate facts in the neighborhood of a given fact and then ranks the candidate facts using a supervised learning to rank model. The ranking model combines features that we automatically learn from data and that represent the query-candidate facts with a set of hand-crafted features we devised or adjusted for this task. In order to obtain the annotations required to train the learning to rank model at scale, we generate training data automatically using distant supervision on a large entity-tagged text corpus. We show that ranking functions learned on this data are effective at contextualizing KG facts. Evaluation using human assessors shows that it significantly outperforms several competitive baselines.
One of the key requirements to facilitate semantic analytics of information regarding contemporary and historical events on the Web, in the news and in social media is the availability of reference knowledge repositories containing comprehensive representations of events and temporal relations. Existing knowledge graphs, with popular examples including DBpedia, YAGO and Wikidata, focus mostly on entity-centric information and are insufficient in terms of their coverage and completeness with respect to events and temporal relations. EventKG presented in this paper is a multilingual event-centric temporal knowledge graph that addresses this gap. EventKG incorporates over 690 thousand contemporary and historical events and over 2.3 million temporal relations extracted from several large-scale knowledge graphs and semi-structured sources and makes them available through a canonical representation.