** This article introduces a new optimization method to improve mergesort's runtime complexity, when sorting sequences that have equal keys to $O(n log_2 k)$, where $k$ is the number of distinct keys in the sequence. When $k$ is constant, it is evident that mergesort is capable of achieving linear time by utilizing linked lists as its underlying data structure. Mergesort linked list implementations can be optimized by introducing a new mechanism to group elements with equal keys together, thus allowing merge algorithm to achieve linear time. **

** Planning in hybrid systems with both discrete and continuous control variables is important for dealing with real-world applications such as extra-planetary exploration and multi-vehicle transportation systems. Meanwhile, generating high-quality solutions given certain hybrid planning specifications is crucial to building high-performance hybrid systems. However, since hybrid planning is challenging in general, most methods use greedy search that is guided by various heuristics, which is neither complete nor optimal and often falls into blind search towards an infinite-action plan. In this paper, we present a hybrid automaton planning formalism and propose an optimal approach that encodes this planning problem as a Mixed Integer Linear Program (MILP) by fixing the action number of automaton runs. We also show an extension of our approach for reasoning over temporally concurrent goals. By leveraging an efficient MILP optimizer, our method is able to generate provably optimal solutions for complex mixed discrete-continuous planning problems within a reasonable time. We use several case studies to demonstrate the extraordinary performance of our hybrid planning method and show that it outperforms a state-of-the-art hybrid planner, Scotty, in both efficiency and solution qualities. **

** Dendric subshifts are defined by combinatorial restrictions of the extensions of the words in its language. This family generalizes well-known families of subshifts such as Sturmian subshifts, Arnoux-Rauzy subshifts and codings of interval exchange transformations. It is known that any minimal dendric subshifts has a primitive $S$-adic representation where the morphisms in $S$ are positive tame automorphisms of the free group generated by the alphabet. In this paper we investigate those $S$-adic representations, heading towards an $S$-adic characterization ot this family. We obtain such a characterization in the ternary case, involving a directed graph with 9 vertices. **

** Solving a singular linear system for an individual vector solution is an ill-posed problem with a condition number infinity. From an alternative perspective, however, the general solution of a singular system is of a bounded sensitivity as a unique element in an affine Grassmannian. If a singular linear system is given through empirical data that are sufficiently accurate with a tight error bound, a properly formulated general numerical solution uniquely exists in the same affine Grassmannian, enjoys Lipschitz continuity and approximates the underlying exact solution with an accuracy in the same order as the data. Furthermore, any backward accurate numerical solution vector is an accurate approximation to one of the solutions of the underlying singular system. **

** Many important real-world settings contain multiple players interacting over an unknown duration with probabilistic state transitions, and are naturally modeled as stochastic games. Prior research on algorithms for stochastic games has focused on two-player zero-sum games, games with perfect information, and games with imperfect-information that is local and does not extend between game states. We present an algorithm for approximating Nash equilibrium in multiplayer general-sum stochastic games with persistent imperfect information that extends throughout game play. We experiment on a 4-player imperfect-information naval strategic planning scenario. Using a new procedure, we are able to demonstrate that our algorithm computes a strategy that closely approximates Nash equilibrium in this game. **

** Quantum hardware and quantum-inspired algorithms are becoming increasingly popular for combinatorial optimization. However, these algorithms may require careful hyperparameter tuning for each problem instance. We use a reinforcement learning agent in conjunction with a quantum-inspired algorithm to solve the Ising energy minimization problem, which is equivalent to the Maximum Cut problem. The agent controls the algorithm by tuning one of its parameters with the goal of improving recently seen solutions. We propose a new Rescaled Ranked Reward (R3) method that enables stable single-player version of self-play training that helps the agent to escape local optima. The training on any problem instance can be accelerated by applying transfer learning from an agent trained on randomly generated problems. Our approach allows sampling high-quality solutions to the Ising problem with high probability and outperforms both baseline heuristics and a black-box hyperparameter optimization approach. **

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