Object detection is considered one of the most challenging problems in this field of computer vision, as it involves the combination of object classification and object localization within a scene. Recently, deep neural networks (DNNs) have been demonstrated to achieve superior object detection performance compared to other approaches, with YOLOv2 (an improved You Only Look Once model) being one of the state-of-the-art in DNN-based object detection methods in terms of both speed and accuracy. Although YOLOv2 can achieve real-time performance on a powerful GPU, it still remains very challenging for leveraging this approach for real-time object detection in video on embedded computing devices with limited computational power and limited memory. In this paper, we propose a new framework called Fast YOLO, a fast You Only Look Once framework which accelerates YOLOv2 to be able to perform object detection in video on embedded devices in a real-time manner. First, we leverage the evolutionary deep intelligence framework to evolve the YOLOv2 network architecture and produce an optimized architecture (referred to as O-YOLOv2 here) that has 2.8X fewer parameters with just a ~2% IOU drop. To further reduce power consumption on embedded devices while maintaining performance, a motion-adaptive inference method is introduced into the proposed Fast YOLO framework to reduce the frequency of deep inference with O-YOLOv2 based on temporal motion characteristics. Experimental results show that the proposed Fast YOLO framework can reduce the number of deep inferences by an average of 38.13%, and an average speedup of ~3.3X for objection detection in video compared to the original YOLOv2, leading Fast YOLO to run an average of ~18FPS on a Nvidia Jetson TX1 embedded system.

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In this paper, we present a comprehensive review of the imbalance problems in object detection. To analyze the problems in a systematic manner, we introduce a problem-based taxonomy. Following this taxonomy, we discuss each problem in depth and present a unifying yet critical perspective on the solutions in the literature. In addition, we identify major open issues regarding the existing imbalance problems as well as imbalance problems that have not been discussed before. Moreover, in order to keep our review up to date, we provide an accompanying webpage which catalogs papers addressing imbalance problems, according to our problem-based taxonomy. Researchers can track newer studies on this webpage available at: https://github.com/kemaloksuz/ObjectDetectionImbalance .

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Classical object detection methods only extract the objects' image features via CNN, lack of utilizing the relationship among objects in the same image. In this article, we introduce the graph convolutional networks (GCN) into the object detection field and propose a new framework called OD-GCN (object detection with graph convolutional network). It utilizes the category relationship to improve the detection precision. We set up a knowledge graph to reflect the co-exist relationships among objects. GCN plays the role of post-processing to adjust the output of base object detection models, so it is a flexible framework that any pre-trained object detection models can be used as the base model. In experiments, we try several popular base detection models. OD-GCN always improve mAP by 1-5pp on COCO dataset. In addition, visualized analysis reveals the benchmark improvement is quite reasonable in human's opinion.

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Benefit from the quick development of deep learning techniques, salient object detection has achieved remarkable progresses recently. However, there still exists following two major challenges that hinder its application in embedded devices, low resolution output and heavy model weight. To this end, this paper presents an accurate yet compact deep network for efficient salient object detection. More specifically, given a coarse saliency prediction in the deepest layer, we first employ residual learning to learn side-output residual features for saliency refinement, which can be achieved with very limited convolutional parameters while keep accuracy. Secondly, we further propose reverse attention to guide such side-output residual learning in a top-down manner. By erasing the current predicted salient regions from side-output features, the network can eventually explore the missing object parts and details which results in high resolution and accuracy. Experiments on six benchmark datasets demonstrate that the proposed approach compares favorably against state-of-the-art methods, and with advantages in terms of simplicity, efficiency (45 FPS) and model size (81 MB).

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Transferring image-based object detectors to domain of videos remains a challenging problem. Previous efforts mostly exploit optical flow to propagate features across frames, aiming to achieve a good trade-off between performance and computational complexity. However, introducing an extra model to estimate optical flow would significantly increase the overall model size. The gap between optical flow and high-level features can hinder it from establishing the spatial correspondence accurately. Instead of relying on optical flow, this paper proposes a novel module called Progressive Sparse Local Attention (PSLA), which establishes the spatial correspondence between features across frames in a local region with progressive sparse strides and uses the correspondence to propagate features. Based on PSLA, Recursive Feature Updating (RFU) and Dense feature Transforming (DFT) are introduced to model temporal appearance and enrich feature representation respectively. Finally, a novel framework for video object detection is proposed. Experiments on ImageNet VID are conducted. Our framework achieves a state-of-the-art speed-accuracy trade-off with significantly reduced model capacity.

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In recent years, object detection has experienced impressive progress. Despite these improvements, there is still a significant gap in the performance between the detection of small and large objects. We analyze the current state-of-the-art model, Mask-RCNN, on a challenging dataset, MS COCO. We show that the overlap between small ground-truth objects and the predicted anchors is much lower than the expected IoU threshold. We conjecture this is due to two factors; (1) only a few images are containing small objects, and (2) small objects do not appear enough even within each image containing them. We thus propose to oversample those images with small objects and augment each of those images by copy-pasting small objects many times. It allows us to trade off the quality of the detector on large objects with that on small objects. We evaluate different pasting augmentation strategies, and ultimately, we achieve 9.7\% relative improvement on the instance segmentation and 7.1\% on the object detection of small objects, compared to the current state of the art method on MS COCO.

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Lane detection is to detect lanes on the road and provide the accurate location and shape of each lane. It severs as one of the key techniques to enable modern assisted and autonomous driving systems. However, several unique properties of lanes challenge the detection methods. The lack of distinctive features makes lane detection algorithms tend to be confused by other objects with similar local appearance. Moreover, the inconsistent number of lanes on a road as well as diverse lane line patterns, e.g. solid, broken, single, double, merging, and splitting lines further hamper the performance. In this paper, we propose a deep neural network based method, named LaneNet, to break down the lane detection into two stages: lane edge proposal and lane line localization. Stage one uses a lane edge proposal network for pixel-wise lane edge classification, and the lane line localization network in stage two then detects lane lines based on lane edge proposals. Please note that the goal of our LaneNet is built to detect lane line only, which introduces more difficulties on suppressing the false detections on the similar lane marks on the road like arrows and characters. Despite all the difficulties, our lane detection is shown to be robust to both highway and urban road scenarios method without relying on any assumptions on the lane number or the lane line patterns. The high running speed and low computational cost endow our LaneNet the capability of being deployed on vehicle-based systems. Experiments validate that our LaneNet consistently delivers outstanding performances on real world traffic scenarios.

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This paper introduces an online model for object detection in videos designed to run in real-time on low-powered mobile and embedded devices. Our approach combines fast single-image object detection with convolutional long short term memory (LSTM) layers to create an interweaved recurrent-convolutional architecture. Additionally, we propose an efficient Bottleneck-LSTM layer that significantly reduces computational cost compared to regular LSTMs. Our network achieves temporal awareness by using Bottleneck-LSTMs to refine and propagate feature maps across frames. This approach is substantially faster than existing detection methods in video, outperforming the fastest single-frame models in model size and computational cost while attaining accuracy comparable to much more expensive single-frame models on the Imagenet VID 2015 dataset. Our model reaches a real-time inference speed of up to 15 FPS on a mobile CPU.

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Lidar based 3D object detection is inevitable for autonomous driving, because it directly links to environmental understanding and therefore builds the base for prediction and motion planning. The capacity of inferencing highly sparse 3D data in real-time is an ill-posed problem for lots of other application areas besides automated vehicles, e.g. augmented reality, personal robotics or industrial automation. We introduce Complex-YOLO, a state of the art real-time 3D object detection network on point clouds only. In this work, we describe a network that expands YOLOv2, a fast 2D standard object detector for RGB images, by a specific complex regression strategy to estimate multi-class 3D boxes in Cartesian space. Thus, we propose a specific Euler-Region-Proposal Network (E-RPN) to estimate the pose of the object by adding an imaginary and a real fraction to the regression network. This ends up in a closed complex space and avoids singularities, which occur by single angle estimations. The E-RPN supports to generalize well during training. Our experiments on the KITTI benchmark suite show that we outperform current leading methods for 3D object detection specifically in terms of efficiency. We achieve state of the art results for cars, pedestrians and cyclists by being more than five times faster than the fastest competitor. Further, our model is capable of estimating all eight KITTI-classes, including Vans, Trucks or sitting pedestrians simultaneously with high accuracy.

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This paper proposes an Agile Aggregating Multi-Level feaTure framework (Agile Amulet) for salient object detection. The Agile Amulet builds on previous works to predict saliency maps using multi-level convolutional features. Compared to previous works, Agile Amulet employs some key innovations to improve training and testing speed while also increase prediction accuracy. More specifically, we first introduce a contextual attention module that can rapidly highlight most salient objects or regions with contextual pyramids. Thus, it effectively guides the learning of low-layer convolutional features and tells the backbone network where to look. The contextual attention module is a fully convolutional mechanism that simultaneously learns complementary features and predicts saliency scores at each pixel. In addition, we propose a novel method to aggregate multi-level deep convolutional features. As a result, we are able to use the integrated side-output features of pre-trained convolutional networks alone, which significantly reduces the model parameters leading to a model size of 67 MB, about half of Amulet. Compared to other deep learning based saliency methods, Agile Amulet is of much lighter-weight, runs faster (30 fps in real-time) and achieves higher performance on seven public benchmarks in terms of both quantitative and qualitative evaluation.

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Object detection is a major challenge in computer vision, involving both object classification and object localization within a scene. While deep neural networks have been shown in recent years to yield very powerful techniques for tackling the challenge of object detection, one of the biggest challenges with enabling such object detection networks for widespread deployment on embedded devices is high computational and memory requirements. Recently, there has been an increasing focus in exploring small deep neural network architectures for object detection that are more suitable for embedded devices, such as Tiny YOLO and SqueezeDet. Inspired by the efficiency of the Fire microarchitecture introduced in SqueezeNet and the object detection performance of the single-shot detection macroarchitecture introduced in SSD, this paper introduces Tiny SSD, a single-shot detection deep convolutional neural network for real-time embedded object detection that is composed of a highly optimized, non-uniform Fire sub-network stack and a non-uniform sub-network stack of highly optimized SSD-based auxiliary convolutional feature layers designed specifically to minimize model size while maintaining object detection performance. The resulting Tiny SSD possess a model size of 2.3MB (~26X smaller than Tiny YOLO) while still achieving an mAP of 61.3% on VOC 2007 (~4.2% higher than Tiny YOLO). These experimental results show that very small deep neural network architectures can be designed for real-time object detection that are well-suited for embedded scenarios.

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