Adversarial attacks are known to succeed on classifiers, but it has been an open question whether more complex vision systems are vulnerable. In this paper, we study adversarial examples for vision and language models, which incorporate natural language understanding and complex structures such as attention, localization, and modular architectures. In particular, we investigate attacks on a dense captioning model and on two visual question answering (VQA) models. Our evaluation shows that we can generate adversarial examples with a high success rate (i.e., > 90%) for these models. Our work sheds new light on understanding adversarial attacks on vision systems which have a language component and shows that attention, bounding box localization, and compositional internal structures are vulnerable to adversarial attacks. These observations will inform future work towards building effective defenses.
Deep neural networks (DNNs) are successful in many computer vision tasks. However, the most accurate DNNs require millions of parameters and operations, making them energy, computation and memory intensive. This impedes the deployment of large DNNs in low-power devices with limited compute resources. Recent research improves DNN models by reducing the memory requirement, energy consumption, and number of operations without significantly decreasing the accuracy. This paper surveys the progress of low-power deep learning and computer vision, specifically in regards to inference, and discusses the methods for compacting and accelerating DNN models. The techniques can be divided into four major categories: (1) parameter quantization and pruning, (2) compressed convolutional filters and matrix factorization, (3) network architecture search, and (4) knowledge distillation. We analyze the accuracy, advantages, disadvantages, and potential solutions to the problems with the techniques in each category. We also discuss new evaluation metrics as a guideline for future research.
We introduce a new large-scale NLI benchmark dataset, collected via an iterative, adversarial human-and-model-in-the-loop procedure. We show that training models on this new dataset leads to state-of-the-art performance on a variety of popular NLI benchmarks, while posing a more difficult challenge with its new test set. Our analysis sheds light on the shortcomings of current state-of-the-art models, and shows that non-expert annotators are successful at finding their weaknesses. The data collection method can be applied in a never-ending learning scenario, becoming a moving target for NLU, rather than a static benchmark that will quickly saturate.
This paper presents a unified Vision-Language Pre-training (VLP) model. The model is unified in that (1) it can be fine-tuned for either vision-language generation (e.g., image captioning) or understanding (e.g., visual question answering) tasks, and (2) it uses a shared multi-layer transformer network for both encoding and decoding, which differs from many existing methods where the encoder and decoder are implemented using separate models. The unified VLP model is pre-trained on a large amount of image-text pairs using the unsupervised learning objectives of two tasks: bidirectional and sequence-to-sequence (seq2seq) masked vision-language prediction. The two tasks differ solely in what context the prediction conditions on. This is controlled by utilizing specific self-attention masks for the shared transformer network. To the best of our knowledge, VLP is the first reported model that achieves state-of-the-art results on both vision-language generation and understanding tasks, as disparate as image captioning and visual question answering, across three challenging benchmark datasets: COCO Captions, Flickr30k Captions, and VQA 2.0. The code and the pre-trained models are available at https://github.com/LuoweiZhou/VLP.
Recent progress in pretraining language models on large textual corpora led to a surge of improvements for downstream NLP tasks. Whilst learning linguistic knowledge, these models may also be storing relational knowledge present in the training data, and may be able to answer queries structured as "fill-in-the-blank" cloze statements. Language models have many advantages over structured knowledge bases: they require no schema engineering, allow practitioners to query about an open class of relations, are easy to extend to more data, and require no human supervision to train. We present an in-depth analysis of the relational knowledge already present (without fine-tuning) in a wide range of state-of-the-art pretrained language models. We find that (i) without fine-tuning, BERT contains relational knowledge competitive with traditional NLP methods that have some access to oracle knowledge, (ii) BERT also does remarkably well on open-domain question answering against a supervised baseline, and (iii) certain types of factual knowledge are learned much more readily than others by standard language model pretraining approaches. The surprisingly strong ability of these models to recall factual knowledge without any fine-tuning demonstrates their potential as unsupervised open-domain QA systems. The code to reproduce our analysis is available at https://github.com/facebookresearch/LAMA.
Learning to construct text representations in end-to-end systems can be difficult, as natural languages are highly compositional and task-specific annotated datasets are often limited in size. Methods for directly supervising language composition can allow us to guide the models based on existing knowledge, regularizing them towards more robust and interpretable representations. In this paper, we investigate how objectives at different granularities can be used to learn better language representations and we propose an architecture for jointly learning to label sentences and tokens. The predictions at each level are combined together using an attention mechanism, with token-level labels also acting as explicit supervision for composing sentence-level representations. Our experiments show that by learning to perform these tasks jointly on multiple levels, the model achieves substantial improvements for both sentence classification and sequence labeling.
The task of answering a question given a text passage has shown great developments on model performance thanks to community efforts in building useful datasets. Recently, there have been doubts whether such rapid progress has been based on truly understanding language. The same question has not been asked in the table question answering (TableQA) task, where we are tasked to answer a query given a table. We show that existing efforts, of using "answers" for both evaluation and supervision for TableQA, show deteriorating performances in adversarial settings of perturbations that do not affect the answer. This insight naturally motivates to develop new models that understand question and table more precisely. For this goal, we propose Neural Operator (NeOp), a multi-layer sequential network with attention supervision to answer the query given a table. NeOp uses multiple Selective Recurrent Units (SelRUs) to further help the interpretability of the answers of the model. Experiments show that the use of operand information to train the model significantly improves the performance and interpretability of TableQA models. NeOp outperforms all the previous models by a big margin.
We marry two powerful ideas: deep representation learning for visual recognition and language understanding, and symbolic program execution for reasoning. Our neural-symbolic visual question answering (NS-VQA) system first recovers a structural scene representation from the image and a program trace from the question. It then executes the program on the scene representation to obtain an answer. Incorporating symbolic structure as prior knowledge offers three unique advantages. First, executing programs on a symbolic space is more robust to long program traces; our model can solve complex reasoning tasks better, achieving an accuracy of 99.8% on the CLEVR dataset. Second, the model is more data- and memory-efficient: it performs well after learning on a small number of training data; it can also encode an image into a compact representation, requiring less storage than existing methods for offline question answering. Third, symbolic program execution offers full transparency to the reasoning process; we are thus able to interpret and diagnose each execution step.
Visual language grounding is widely studied in modern neural image captioning systems, which typically adopts an encoder-decoder framework consisting of two principal components: a convolutional neural network (CNN) for image feature extraction and a recurrent neural network (RNN) for language caption generation. To study the robustness of language grounding to adversarial perturbations in machine vision and perception, we propose Show-and-Fool, a novel algorithm for crafting adversarial examples in neural image captioning. The proposed algorithm provides two evaluation approaches, which check whether neural image captioning systems can be mislead to output some randomly chosen captions or keywords. Our extensive experiments show that our algorithm can successfully craft visually-similar adversarial examples with randomly targeted captions or keywords, and the adversarial examples can be made highly transferable to other image captioning systems. Consequently, our approach leads to new robustness implications of neural image captioning and novel insights in visual language grounding.
Character-based neural machine translation (NMT) models alleviate out-of-vocabulary issues, learn morphology, and move us closer to completely end-to-end translation systems. Unfortunately, they are also very brittle and easily falter when presented with noisy data. In this paper, we confront NMT models with synthetic and natural sources of noise. We find that state-of-the-art models fail to translate even moderately noisy texts that humans have no trouble comprehending. We explore two approaches to increase model robustness: structure-invariant word representations and robust training on noisy texts. We find that a model based on a character convolutional neural network is able to simultaneously learn representations robust to multiple kinds of noise.
Click through rate (CTR) prediction of image ads is the core task of online display advertising systems, and logistic regression (LR) has been frequently applied as the prediction model. However, LR model lacks the ability of extracting complex and intrinsic nonlinear features from handcrafted high-dimensional image features, which limits its effectiveness. To solve this issue, in this paper, we introduce a novel deep neural network (DNN) based model that directly predicts the CTR of an image ad based on raw image pixels and other basic features in one step. The DNN model employs convolution layers to automatically extract representative visual features from images, and nonlinear CTR features are then learned from visual features and other contextual features by using fully-connected layers. Empirical evaluations on a real world dataset with over 50 million records demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of this method.