Generative adversarial networks (GANs) are a hot research topic recently. GANs have been widely studied since 2014, and a large number of algorithms have been proposed. However, there is few comprehensive study explaining the connections among different GANs variants, and how they have evolved. In this paper, we attempt to provide a review on various GANs methods from the perspectives of algorithms, theory, and applications. Firstly, the motivations, mathematical representations, and structure of most GANs algorithms are introduced in details. Furthermore, GANs have been combined with other machine learning algorithms for specific applications, such as semi-supervised learning, transfer learning, and reinforcement learning. This paper compares the commonalities and differences of these GANs methods. Secondly, theoretical issues related to GANs are investigated. Thirdly, typical applications of GANs in image processing and computer vision, natural language processing, music, speech and audio, medical field, and data science are illustrated. Finally, the future open research problems for GANs are pointed out.

33
下载
关闭预览

相关内容

Since deep neural networks were developed, they have made huge contributions to everyday lives. Machine learning provides more rational advice than humans are capable of in almost every aspect of daily life. However, despite this achievement, the design and training of neural networks are still challenging and unpredictable procedures. To lower the technical thresholds for common users, automated hyper-parameter optimization (HPO) has become a popular topic in both academic and industrial areas. This paper provides a review of the most essential topics on HPO. The first section introduces the key hyper-parameters related to model training and structure, and discusses their importance and methods to define the value range. Then, the research focuses on major optimization algorithms and their applicability, covering their efficiency and accuracy especially for deep learning networks. This study next reviews major services and toolkits for HPO, comparing their support for state-of-the-art searching algorithms, feasibility with major deep learning frameworks, and extensibility for new modules designed by users. The paper concludes with problems that exist when HPO is applied to deep learning, a comparison between optimization algorithms, and prominent approaches for model evaluation with limited computational resources.

0
10
下载
预览

Deep learning models on graphs have achieved remarkable performance in various graph analysis tasks, e.g., node classification, link prediction and graph clustering. However, they expose uncertainty and unreliability against the well-designed inputs, i.e., adversarial examples. Accordingly, various studies have emerged for both attack and defense addressed in different graph analysis tasks, leading to the arms race in graph adversarial learning. For instance, the attacker has poisoning and evasion attack, and the defense group correspondingly has preprocessing- and adversarial- based methods. Despite the booming works, there still lacks a unified problem definition and a comprehensive review. To bridge this gap, we investigate and summarize the existing works on graph adversarial learning tasks systemically. Specifically, we survey and unify the existing works w.r.t. attack and defense in graph analysis tasks, and give proper definitions and taxonomies at the same time. Besides, we emphasize the importance of related evaluation metrics, and investigate and summarize them comprehensively. Hopefully, our works can serve as a reference for the relevant researchers, thus providing assistance for their studies. More details of our works are available at https://github.com/gitgiter/Graph-Adversarial-Learning.

0
31
下载
预览

When and why can a neural network be successfully trained? This article provides an overview of optimization algorithms and theory for training neural networks. First, we discuss the issue of gradient explosion/vanishing and the more general issue of undesirable spectrum, and then discuss practical solutions including careful initialization and normalization methods. Second, we review generic optimization methods used in training neural networks, such as SGD, adaptive gradient methods and distributed methods, and theoretical results for these algorithms. Third, we review existing research on the global issues of neural network training, including results on bad local minima, mode connectivity, lottery ticket hypothesis and infinite-width analysis.

0
72
下载
预览

Generative adversarial networks (GANs) have been extensively studied in the past few years. Arguably the revolutionary techniques are in the area of computer vision such as plausible image generation, image to image translation, facial attribute manipulation and similar domains. Despite the significant success achieved in computer vision field, applying GANs over real-world problems still have three main challenges: (1) High quality image generation; (2) Diverse image generation; and (3) Stable training. Considering numerous GAN-related research in the literature, we provide a study on the architecture-variants and loss-variants, which are proposed to handle these three challenges from two perspectives. We propose loss and architecture-variants for classifying most popular GANs, and discuss the potential improvements with focusing on these two aspects. While several reviews for GANs have been presented, there is no work focusing on the review of GAN-variants based on handling challenges mentioned above. In this paper, we review and critically discuss 7 architecture-variant GANs and 9 loss-variant GANs for remedying those three challenges. The objective of this review is to provide an insight on the footprint that current GANs research focuses on the performance improvement. Code related to GAN-variants studied in this work is summarized on https://github.com/sheqi/GAN_Review.

0
8
下载
预览

Time Series Classification (TSC) is an important and challenging problem in data mining. With the increase of time series data availability, hundreds of TSC algorithms have been proposed. Among these methods, only a few have considered Deep Neural Networks (DNNs) to perform this task. This is surprising as deep learning has seen very successful applications in the last years. DNNs have indeed revolutionized the field of computer vision especially with the advent of novel deeper architectures such as Residual and Convolutional Neural Networks. Apart from images, sequential data such as text and audio can also be processed with DNNs to reach state-of-the-art performance for document classification and speech recognition. In this article, we study the current state-of-the-art performance of deep learning algorithms for TSC by presenting an empirical study of the most recent DNN architectures for TSC. We give an overview of the most successful deep learning applications in various time series domains under a unified taxonomy of DNNs for TSC. We also provide an open source deep learning framework to the TSC community where we implemented each of the compared approaches and evaluated them on a univariate TSC benchmark (the UCR/UEA archive) and 12 multivariate time series datasets. By training 8,730 deep learning models on 97 time series datasets, we propose the most exhaustive study of DNNs for TSC to date.

0
5
下载
预览

Deep learning has been shown successful in a number of domains, ranging from acoustics, images to natural language processing. However, applying deep learning to the ubiquitous graph data is non-trivial because of the unique characteristics of graphs. Recently, a significant amount of research efforts have been devoted to this area, greatly advancing graph analyzing techniques. In this survey, we comprehensively review different kinds of deep learning methods applied to graphs. We divide existing methods into three main categories: semi-supervised methods including Graph Neural Networks and Graph Convolutional Networks, unsupervised methods including Graph Autoencoders, and recent advancements including Graph Recurrent Neural Networks and Graph Reinforcement Learning. We then provide a comprehensive overview of these methods in a systematic manner following their history of developments. We also analyze the differences of these methods and how to composite different architectures. Finally, we briefly outline their applications and discuss potential future directions.

0
35
下载
预览

Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) have recently achieved impressive results for many real-world applications, and many GAN variants have emerged with improvements in sample quality and training stability. However, they have not been well visualized or understood. How does a GAN represent our visual world internally? What causes the artifacts in GAN results? How do architectural choices affect GAN learning? Answering such questions could enable us to develop new insights and better models. In this work, we present an analytic framework to visualize and understand GANs at the unit-, object-, and scene-level. We first identify a group of interpretable units that are closely related to object concepts using a segmentation-based network dissection method. Then, we quantify the causal effect of interpretable units by measuring the ability of interventions to control objects in the output. We examine the contextual relationship between these units and their surroundings by inserting the discovered object concepts into new images. We show several practical applications enabled by our framework, from comparing internal representations across different layers, models, and datasets, to improving GANs by locating and removing artifact-causing units, to interactively manipulating objects in a scene. We provide open source interpretation tools to help researchers and practitioners better understand their GAN models.

0
11
下载
预览

There is a recent large and growing interest in generative adversarial networks (GANs), which offer powerful features for generative modeling, density estimation, and energy function learning. GANs are difficult to train and evaluate but are capable of creating amazingly realistic, though synthetic, image data. Ideas stemming from GANs such as adversarial losses are creating research opportunities for other challenges such as domain adaptation. In this paper, we look at the field of GANs with emphasis on these areas of emerging research. To provide background for adversarial techniques, we survey the field of GANs, looking at the original formulation, training variants, evaluation methods, and extensions. Then we survey recent work on transfer learning, focusing on comparing different adversarial domain adaptation methods. Finally, we take a look forward to identify open research directions for GANs and domain adaptation, including some promising applications such as sensor-based human behavior modeling.

0
9
下载
预览

Recently introduced generative adversarial network (GAN) has been shown numerous promising results to generate realistic samples. The essential task of GAN is to control the features of samples generated from a random distribution. While the current GAN structures, such as conditional GAN, successfully generate samples with desired major features, they often fail to produce detailed features that bring specific differences among samples. To overcome this limitation, here we propose a controllable GAN (ControlGAN) structure. By separating a feature classifier from a discriminator, the generator of ControlGAN is designed to learn generating synthetic samples with the specific detailed features. Evaluated with multiple image datasets, ControlGAN shows a power to generate improved samples with well-controlled features. Furthermore, we demonstrate that ControlGAN can generate intermediate features and opposite features for interpolated and extrapolated input labels that are not used in the training process. It implies that ControlGAN can significantly contribute to the variety of generated samples.

0
4
下载
预览

Person re-identification (\textit{re-id}) refers to matching pedestrians across disjoint yet non-overlapping camera views. The most effective way to match these pedestrians undertaking significant visual variations is to seek reliably invariant features that can describe the person of interest faithfully. Most of existing methods are presented in a supervised manner to produce discriminative features by relying on labeled paired images in correspondence. However, annotating pair-wise images is prohibitively expensive in labors, and thus not practical in large-scale networked cameras. Moreover, seeking comparable representations across camera views demands a flexible model to address the complex distributions of images. In this work, we study the co-occurrence statistic patterns between pairs of images, and propose to crossing Generative Adversarial Network (Cross-GAN) for learning a joint distribution for cross-image representations in a unsupervised manner. Given a pair of person images, the proposed model consists of the variational auto-encoder to encode the pair into respective latent variables, a proposed cross-view alignment to reduce the view disparity, and an adversarial layer to seek the joint distribution of latent representations. The learned latent representations are well-aligned to reflect the co-occurrence patterns of paired images. We empirically evaluate the proposed model against challenging datasets, and our results show the importance of joint invariant features in improving matching rates of person re-id with comparison to semi/unsupervised state-of-the-arts.

0
10
下载
预览
小贴士
相关论文
Hyper-Parameter Optimization: A Review of Algorithms and Applications
Tong Yu,Hong Zhu
10+阅读 · 2020年3月12日
Liang Chen,Jintang Li,Jiaying Peng,Tao Xie,Zengxu Cao,Kun Xu,Xiangnan He,Zibin Zheng
31+阅读 · 2020年3月10日
Optimization for deep learning: theory and algorithms
Ruoyu Sun
72+阅读 · 2019年12月19日
Generative Adversarial Networks: A Survey and Taxonomy
Zhengwei Wang,Qi She,Tomas E. Ward
8+阅读 · 2019年6月4日
H. Ismail Fawaz,G. Forestier,J. Weber,L. Idoumghar,P. Muller
5+阅读 · 2019年3月14日
Ziwei Zhang,Peng Cui,Wenwu Zhu
35+阅读 · 2018年12月11日
GAN Dissection: Visualizing and Understanding Generative Adversarial Networks
David Bau,Jun-Yan Zhu,Hendrik Strobelt,Bolei Zhou,Joshua B. Tenenbaum,William T. Freeman,Antonio Torralba
11+阅读 · 2018年12月8日
Adversarial Transfer Learning
Garrett Wilson,Diane J. Cook
9+阅读 · 2018年12月6日
Minhyeok Lee,Junhee Seok
4+阅读 · 2018年5月1日
Chengyuan Zhang,Lin Wu,Yang Wang
10+阅读 · 2018年1月4日
相关VIP内容
专知会员服务
58+阅读 · 2020年3月18日
机器学习入门的经验与建议
专知会员服务
21+阅读 · 2019年10月10日
相关资讯
Hierarchically Structured Meta-learning
CreateAMind
9+阅读 · 2019年5月22日
人工智能 | CCF推荐期刊专刊约稿信息6条
Call4Papers
3+阅读 · 2019年2月18日
Unsupervised Learning via Meta-Learning
CreateAMind
26+阅读 · 2019年1月3日
A Technical Overview of AI & ML in 2018 & Trends for 2019
待字闺中
10+阅读 · 2018年12月24日
disentangled-representation-papers
CreateAMind
20+阅读 · 2018年9月12日
【论文】变分推断(Variational inference)的总结
机器学习研究会
22+阅读 · 2017年11月16日
Adversarial Variational Bayes: Unifying VAE and GAN 代码
CreateAMind
7+阅读 · 2017年10月4日
【推荐】深度学习目标检测全面综述
机器学习研究会
17+阅读 · 2017年9月13日
【推荐】GAN架构入门综述(资源汇总)
机器学习研究会
8+阅读 · 2017年9月3日
Auto-Encoding GAN
CreateAMind
5+阅读 · 2017年8月4日
Top