Over the years, static taint analysis emerged as the analysis of choice to detect some of the most common web application vulnerabilities, such as SQL injection (SQLi) and cross-site scripting (XSS)~\cite{OWASP}. Furthermore, from an implementation perspective, the IFDS dataflow framework stood out as one of the most successful vehicles to implement static taint analysis for real-world Java applications. While existing approaches scale reasonably to medium-size applications (e.g. up to one hour analysis time for less than 100K lines of code), our experience suggests that no existing solution can scale to very large industrial code bases (e.g. more than 1M lines of code). In this paper, we present our novel IFDS-based solution to perform fast and precise static taint analysis of very large industrial Java web applications. Similar to state-of-the-art approaches to taint analysis, our IFDS-based taint analysis uses \textit{access paths} to abstract objects and fields in a program. However, contrary to existing approaches, our analysis is demand-driven, which restricts the amount of code to be analyzed, and does not rely on a computationally expensive alias analysis, thereby significantly improving scalability.

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The article gives an overview of the plagiarism domain, with focus on academic plagiarism. The article defines plagiarism, explains the origin of the term, as well as plagiarism related terms. It identifies the extent of the plagiarism domain and then focuses on the plagiarism subdomain of text documents, for which it gives an overview of current classifications and taxonomies and then proposes a more comprehensive classification according to several criteria: their origin and purpose, technical implementation, consequence, complexity of detection and according to the number of linguistic sources. The article suggests the new classification of academic plagiarism, describes sorts and methods of plagiarism, types and categories, approaches and phases of plagiarism detection, the classification of methods and algorithms for plagiarism detection. The title of the article explicitly targets the academic community, but it is sufficiently general and interdisciplinary, so it can be useful for many other professionals like software developers, linguists and librarians.

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In this paper, we study communication-efficient distributed stochastic gradient descent (SGD) with data sets of users distributed over a certain area and communicating through wireless channels. Since the time for one iteration in the proposed approach is independent of the number of users, it is well-suited to scalable distributed SGD. Furthermore, since the proposed approach is based on preamble-based random access, which is widely adopted for machine-type communication (MTC), it can be easily employed for training models with a large number of devices in various Internet-of-Things (IoT) applications where MTC is used for their connectivity. For fading channel, we show that noncoherent combining can be used. As a result, no channel state information (CSI) estimation is required. From analysis and simulation results, we can confirm that the proposed approach is not only scalable, but also provides improved performance as the number of devices increases.

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Image-to-image translation (I2I) aims to transfer images from a source domain to a target domain while preserving the content representations. I2I has drawn increasing attention and made tremendous progress in recent years because of its wide range of applications in many computer vision and image processing problems, such as image synthesis, segmentation, style transfer, restoration, and pose estimation. In this paper, we provide an overview of the I2I works developed in recent years. We will analyze the key techniques of the existing I2I works and clarify the main progress the community has made. Additionally, we will elaborate on the effect of I2I on the research and industry community and point out remaining challenges in related fields.

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Aspect-based sentiment analysis (ABSA) is to predict the sentiment polarity towards a particular aspect in a sentence. Recently, this task has been widely addressed by the neural attention mechanism, which computes attention weights to softly select words for generating aspect-specific sentence representations. The attention is expected to concentrate on opinion words for accurate sentiment prediction. However, attention is prone to be distracted by noisy or misleading words, or opinion words from other aspects. In this paper, we propose an alternative hard-selection approach, which determines the start and end positions of the opinion snippet, and selects the words between these two positions for sentiment prediction. Specifically, we learn deep associations between the sentence and aspect, and the long-term dependencies within the sentence by leveraging the pre-trained BERT model. We further detect the opinion snippet by self-critical reinforcement learning. Especially, experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of our method and prove that our hard-selection approach outperforms soft-selection approaches when handling multi-aspect sentences.

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This paper proposes a way to improve the performance of existing algorithms for text classification in domains with strong language semantics. We propose a domain adaptation layer learns weights to combine a generic and a domain specific (DS) word embedding into a domain adapted (DA) embedding. The DA word embeddings are then used as inputs to a generic encoder + classifier framework to perform a downstream task such as classification. This adaptation layer is particularly suited to datasets that are modest in size, and which are, therefore, not ideal candidates for (re)training a deep neural network architecture. Results on binary and multi-class classification tasks using popular encoder architectures, including current state-of-the-art methods (with and without the shallow adaptation layer) show the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

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Deep reinforcement learning (RL) has achieved many recent successes, yet experiment turn-around time remains a key bottleneck in research and in practice. We investigate how to optimize existing deep RL algorithms for modern computers, specifically for a combination of CPUs and GPUs. We confirm that both policy gradient and Q-value learning algorithms can be adapted to learn using many parallel simulator instances. We further find it possible to train using batch sizes considerably larger than are standard, without negatively affecting sample complexity or final performance. We leverage these facts to build a unified framework for parallelization that dramatically hastens experiments in both classes of algorithm. All neural network computations use GPUs, accelerating both data collection and training. Our results include using an entire DGX-1 to learn successful strategies in Atari games in mere minutes, using both synchronous and asynchronous algorithms.

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Lots of learning tasks require dealing with graph data which contains rich relation information among elements. Modeling physics system, learning molecular fingerprints, predicting protein interface, and classifying diseases require that a model to learn from graph inputs. In other domains such as learning from non-structural data like texts and images, reasoning on extracted structures, like the dependency tree of sentences and the scene graph of images, is an important research topic which also needs graph reasoning models. Graph neural networks (GNNs) are connectionist models that capture the dependence of graphs via message passing between the nodes of graphs. Unlike standard neural networks, graph neural networks retain a state that can represent information from its neighborhood with an arbitrary depth. Although the primitive graph neural networks have been found difficult to train for a fixed point, recent advances in network architectures, optimization techniques, and parallel computation have enabled successful learning with them. In recent years, systems based on graph convolutional network (GCN) and gated graph neural network (GGNN) have demonstrated ground-breaking performance on many tasks mentioned above. In this survey, we provide a detailed review over existing graph neural network models, systematically categorize the applications, and propose four open problems for future research.

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Clustering is an essential data mining tool that aims to discover inherent cluster structure in data. For most applications, applying clustering is only appropriate when cluster structure is present. As such, the study of clusterability, which evaluates whether data possesses such structure, is an integral part of cluster analysis. However, methods for evaluating clusterability vary radically, making it challenging to select a suitable measure. In this paper, we perform an extensive comparison of measures of clusterability and provide guidelines that clustering users can reference to select suitable measures for their applications.

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Aspect based sentiment analysis (ABSA) can provide more detailed information than general sentiment analysis, because it aims to predict the sentiment polarities of the given aspects or entities in text. We summarize previous approaches into two subtasks: aspect-category sentiment analysis (ACSA) and aspect-term sentiment analysis (ATSA). Most previous approaches employ long short-term memory and attention mechanisms to predict the sentiment polarity of the concerned targets, which are often complicated and need more training time. We propose a model based on convolutional neural networks and gating mechanisms, which is more accurate and efficient. First, the novel Gated Tanh-ReLU Units can selectively output the sentiment features according to the given aspect or entity. The architecture is much simpler than attention layer used in the existing models. Second, the computations of our model could be easily parallelized during training, because convolutional layers do not have time dependency as in LSTM layers, and gating units also work independently. The experiments on SemEval datasets demonstrate the efficiency and effectiveness of our models.

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