In many information extraction applications, entity linking (EL) has emerged as a crucial task that allows leveraging information about named entities from a knowledge base. In this paper, we address the task of multimodal entity linking (MEL), an emerging research field in which textual and visual information is used to map an ambiguous mention to an entity in a knowledge base (KB). First, we propose a method for building a fully annotated Twitter dataset for MEL, where entities are defined in a Twitter KB. Then, we propose a model for jointly learning a representation of both mentions and entities from their textual and visual contexts. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed model by evaluating it on the proposed dataset and highlight the importance of leveraging visual information when it is available.
Machine understanding of user utterances in conversational systems is of utmost importance for enabling engaging and meaningful conversations with users. Entity Linking (EL) is one of the means of text understanding, with proven efficacy for various downstream tasks in information retrieval. In this paper, we study entity linking for conversational systems. To develop a better understanding of what EL in a conversational setting entails, we analyze a large number of dialogues from existing conversational datasets and annotate references to concepts, named entities, and personal entities using crowdsourcing. Based on the annotated dialogues, we identify the main characteristics of conversational entity linking. Further, we report on the performance of traditional EL systems on our Conversational Entity Linking dataset, ConEL, and present an extension to these methods to better fit the conversational setting. The resources released with this paper include annotated datasets, detailed descriptions of crowdsourcing setups, as well as the annotations produced by various EL systems. These new resources allow for an investigation of how the role of entities in conversations is different from that in documents or isolated short text utterances like queries and tweets, and complement existing conversational datasets.
Entity alignment seeks to find entities in different knowledge graphs (KGs) that refer to the same real-world object. Recent advancement in KG embedding impels the advent of embedding-based entity alignment, which encodes entities in a continuous embedding space and measures entity similarities based on the learned embeddings. In this paper, we conduct a comprehensive experimental study of this emerging field. We survey 23 recent embedding-based entity alignment approaches and categorize them based on their techniques and characteristics. We also propose a new KG sampling algorithm, with which we generate a set of dedicated benchmark datasets with various heterogeneity and distributions for a realistic evaluation. We develop an open-source library including 12 representative embedding-based entity alignment approaches, and extensively evaluate these approaches, to understand their strengths and limitations. Additionally, for several directions that have not been explored in current approaches, we perform exploratory experiments and report our preliminary findings for future studies. The benchmark datasets, open-source library and experimental results are all accessible online and will be duly maintained.
Knowledge graph completion aims to predict missing relations between entities in a knowledge graph. While many different methods have been proposed, there is a lack of a unifying framework that would lead to state-of-the-art results. Here we develop PathCon, a knowledge graph completion method that harnesses four novel insights to outperform existing methods. PathCon predicts relations between a pair of entities by: (1) Considering the Relational Context of each entity by capturing the relation types adjacent to the entity and modeled through a novel edge-based message passing scheme; (2) Considering the Relational Paths capturing all paths between the two entities; And, (3) adaptively integrating the Relational Context and Relational Path through a learnable attention mechanism. Importantly, (4) in contrast to conventional node-based representations, PathCon represents context and path only using the relation types, which makes it applicable in an inductive setting. Experimental results on knowledge graph benchmarks as well as our newly proposed dataset show that PathCon outperforms state-of-the-art knowledge graph completion methods by a large margin. Finally, PathCon is able to provide interpretable explanations by identifying relations that provide the context and paths that are important for a given predicted relation.
Corpus-based set expansion (i.e., finding the "complete" set of entities belonging to the same semantic class, based on a given corpus and a tiny set of seeds) is a critical task in knowledge discovery. It may facilitate numerous downstream applications, such as information extraction, taxonomy induction, question answering, and web search. To discover new entities in an expanded set, previous approaches either make one-time entity ranking based on distributional similarity, or resort to iterative pattern-based bootstrapping. The core challenge for these methods is how to deal with noisy context features derived from free-text corpora, which may lead to entity intrusion and semantic drifting. In this study, we propose a novel framework, SetExpan, which tackles this problem, with two techniques: (1) a context feature selection method that selects clean context features for calculating entity-entity distributional similarity, and (2) a ranking-based unsupervised ensemble method for expanding entity set based on denoised context features. Experiments on three datasets show that SetExpan is robust and outperforms previous state-of-the-art methods in terms of mean average precision.
Entity alignment is a viable means for integrating heterogeneous knowledge among different knowledge graphs (KGs). Recent developments in the field often take an embedding-based approach to model the structural information of KGs so that entity alignment can be easily performed in the embedding space. However, most existing works do not explicitly utilize useful relation representations to assist in entity alignment, which, as we will show in the paper, is a simple yet effective way for improving entity alignment. This paper presents a novel joint learning framework for entity alignment. At the core of our approach is a Graph Convolutional Network (GCN) based framework for learning both entity and relation representations. Rather than relying on pre-aligned relation seeds to learn relation representations, we first approximate them using entity embeddings learned by the GCN. We then incorporate the relation approximation into entities to iteratively learn better representations for both. Experiments performed on three real-world cross-lingual datasets show that our approach substantially outperforms state-of-the-art entity alignment methods.
We present a new local entity disambiguation system. The key to our system is a novel approach for learning entity representations. In our approach we learn an entity aware extension of Embedding for Language Model (ELMo) which we call Entity-ELMo (E-ELMo). Given a paragraph containing one or more named entity mentions, each mention is first defined as a function of the entire paragraph (including other mentions), then they predict the referent entities. Utilizing E-ELMo for local entity disambiguation, we outperform all of the state-of-the-art local and global models on the popular benchmarks by improving about 0.5\% on micro average accuracy for AIDA test-b with Yago candidate set. The evaluation setup of the training data and candidate set are the same as our baselines for fair comparison.
We study the problem of embedding-based entity alignment between knowledge graphs (KGs). Previous works mainly focus on the relational structure of entities. Some further incorporate another type of features, such as attributes, for refinement. However, a vast of entity features are still unexplored or not equally treated together, which impairs the accuracy and robustness of embedding-based entity alignment. In this paper, we propose a novel framework that unifies multiple views of entities to learn embeddings for entity alignment. Specifically, we embed entities based on the views of entity names, relations and attributes, with several combination strategies. Furthermore, we design some cross-KG inference methods to enhance the alignment between two KGs. Our experiments on real-world datasets show that the proposed framework significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art embedding-based entity alignment methods. The selected views, cross-KG inference and combination strategies all contribute to the performance improvement.
Current image captioning approaches generate descriptions which lack specific information, such as named entities that are involved in the images. In this paper we propose a new task which aims to generate informative image captions, given images and hashtags as input. We propose a simple but effective approach to tackle this problem. We first train a convolutional neural networks - long short term memory networks (CNN-LSTM) model to generate a template caption based on the input image. Then we use a knowledge graph based collective inference algorithm to fill in the template with specific named entities retrieved via the hashtags. Experiments on a new benchmark dataset collected from Flickr show that our model generates news-style image descriptions with much richer information. Our model outperforms unimodal baselines significantly with various evaluation metrics.
We introduce a new task called Multimodal Named Entity Recognition (MNER) for noisy user-generated data such as tweets or Snapchat captions, which comprise short text with accompanying images. These social media posts often come in inconsistent or incomplete syntax and lexical notations with very limited surrounding textual contexts, bringing significant challenges for NER. To this end, we create a new dataset for MNER called SnapCaptions (Snapchat image-caption pairs submitted to public and crowd-sourced stories with fully annotated named entities). We then build upon the state-of-the-art Bi-LSTM word/character based NER models with 1) a deep image network which incorporates relevant visual context to augment textual information, and 2) a generic modality-attention module which learns to attenuate irrelevant modalities while amplifying the most informative ones to extract contexts from, adaptive to each sample and token. The proposed MNER model with modality attention significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art text-only NER models by successfully leveraging provided visual contexts, opening up potential applications of MNER on myriads of social media platforms.
Social Media users tend to mention entities when reacting to news events. The main purpose of this work is to create entity-centric aggregations of tweets on a daily basis. By applying topic modeling and sentiment analysis, we create data visualization insights about current events and people reactions to those events from an entity-centric perspective.