Images in visualization publications contain rich information, e.g., novel visualization designs and common combinations of visualizations. A systematic collection of these images can contribute to the community in many aspects, such as literature analysis and automated tasks for visualization. In this paper, we build and make public a dataset, VisImages, which collects 12,267 images with captions from 1,397 papers in IEEE InfoVis and VAST. Based on a refined taxonomy for visualizations in publications, the dataset includes 35,096 annotated visualizations, as well as their positions. We demonstrate the usefulness of VisImages through three use cases: 1) exploring and analyzing the evolution of visualizations with VisImages Explorer, 2) training and benchmarking models for visualization classification, and 3) localizing and recognizing visualizations in the images automatically.
The past few years have witnessed renewed interest in NLP tasks at the interface between vision and language. One intensively-studied problem is that of automatically generating text from images. In this paper, we extend this problem to the more specific domain of face description. Unlike scene descriptions, face descriptions are more fine-grained and rely on attributes extracted from the image, rather than objects and relations. Given that no data exists for this task, we present an ongoing crowdsourcing study to collect a corpus of descriptions of face images taken `in the wild'. To gain a better understanding of the variation we find in face description and the possible issues that this may raise, we also conducted an annotation study on a subset of the corpus. Primarily, we found descriptions to refer to a mixture of attributes, not only physical, but also emotional and inferential, which is bound to create further challenges for current image-to-text methods.
The milestone improvements brought about by deep representation learning and pre-training techniques have led to large performance gains across downstream NLP, IR and Vision tasks. Multimodal modeling techniques aim to leverage large high-quality visio-linguistic datasets for learning complementary information (across image and text modalities). In this paper, we introduce the Wikipedia-based Image Text (WIT) Dataset (https://github.com/google-research-datasets/wit) to better facilitate multimodal, multilingual learning. WIT is composed of a curated set of 37.6 million entity rich image-text examples with 11.5 million unique images across 108 Wikipedia languages. Its size enables WIT to be used as a pretraining dataset for multimodal models, as we show when applied to downstream tasks such as image-text retrieval. WIT has four main and unique advantages. First, WIT is the largest multimodal dataset by the number of image-text examples by 3x (at the time of writing). Second, WIT is massively multilingual (first of its kind) with coverage over 100+ languages (each of which has at least 12K examples) and provides cross-lingual texts for many images. Third, WIT represents a more diverse set of concepts and real world entities relative to what previous datasets cover. Lastly, WIT provides a very challenging real-world test set, as we empirically illustrate using an image-text retrieval task as an example.
Image-text matching plays a central role in bridging vision and language. Most existing approaches only rely on the image-text instance pair to learn their representations, thereby exploiting their matching relationships and making the corresponding alignments. Such approaches only exploit the superficial associations contained in the instance pairwise data, with no consideration of any external commonsense knowledge, which may hinder their capabilities to reason the higher-level relationships between image and text. In this paper, we propose a Consensus-aware Visual-Semantic Embedding (CVSE) model to incorporate the consensus information, namely the commonsense knowledge shared between both modalities, into image-text matching. Specifically, the consensus information is exploited by computing the statistical co-occurrence correlations between the semantic concepts from the image captioning corpus and deploying the constructed concept correlation graph to yield the consensus-aware concept (CAC) representations. Afterwards, CVSE learns the associations and alignments between image and text based on the exploited consensus as well as the instance-level representations for both modalities. Extensive experiments conducted on two public datasets verify that the exploited consensus makes significant contributions to constructing more meaningful visual-semantic embeddings, with the superior performances over the state-of-the-art approaches on the bidirectional image and text retrieval task. Our code of this paper is available at: https://github.com/BruceW91/CVSE.
Detection and recognition of text in natural images are two main problems in the field of computer vision that have a wide variety of applications in analysis of sports videos, autonomous driving, industrial automation, to name a few. They face common challenging problems that are factors in how text is represented and affected by several environmental conditions. The current state-of-the-art scene text detection and/or recognition methods have exploited the witnessed advancement in deep learning architectures and reported a superior accuracy on benchmark datasets when tackling multi-resolution and multi-oriented text. However, there are still several remaining challenges affecting text in the wild images that cause existing methods to underperform due to there models are not able to generalize to unseen data and the insufficient labeled data. Thus, unlike previous surveys in this field, the objectives of this survey are as follows: first, offering the reader not only a review on the recent advancement in scene text detection and recognition, but also presenting the results of conducting extensive experiments using a unified evaluation framework that assesses pre-trained models of the selected methods on challenging cases, and applies the same evaluation criteria on these techniques. Second, identifying several existing challenges for detecting or recognizing text in the wild images, namely, in-plane-rotation, multi-oriented and multi-resolution text, perspective distortion, illumination reflection, partial occlusion, complex fonts, and special characters. Finally, the paper also presents insight into the potential research directions in this field to address some of the mentioned challenges that are still encountering scene text detection and recognition techniques.
Transformer architectures show significant promise for natural language processing. Given that a single pretrained model can be fine-tuned to perform well on many different tasks, these networks appear to extract generally useful linguistic features. A natural question is how such networks represent this information internally. This paper describes qualitative and quantitative investigations of one particularly effective model, BERT. At a high level, linguistic features seem to be represented in separate semantic and syntactic subspaces. We find evidence of a fine-grained geometric representation of word senses. We also present empirical descriptions of syntactic representations in both attention matrices and individual word embeddings, as well as a mathematical argument to explain the geometry of these representations.
Existing Earth Vision datasets are either suitable for semantic segmentation or object detection. In this work, we introduce the first benchmark dataset for instance segmentation in aerial imagery that combines instance-level object detection and pixel-level segmentation tasks. In comparison to instance segmentation in natural scenes, aerial images present unique challenges e.g., a huge number of instances per image, large object-scale variations and abundant tiny objects. Our large-scale and densely annotated Instance Segmentation in Aerial Images Dataset (iSAID) comes with 655,451 object instances for 15 categories across 2,806 high-resolution images. Such precise per-pixel annotations for each instance ensure accurate localization that is essential for detailed scene analysis. Compared to existing small-scale aerial image based instance segmentation datasets, iSAID contains 15$\times$ the number of object categories and 5$\times$ the number of instances. We benchmark our dataset using two popular instance segmentation approaches for natural images, namely Mask R-CNN and PANet. In our experiments we show that direct application of off-the-shelf Mask R-CNN and PANet on aerial images provide suboptimal instance segmentation results, thus requiring specialized solutions from the research community. The dataset is publicly available at: https://captain-whu.github.io/iSAID/index.html
Our interest in this paper is in meeting a rapidly growing industrial demand for information extraction from images of documents such as invoices, bills, receipts etc. In practice users are able to provide a very small number of example images labeled with the information that needs to be extracted. We adopt a novel two-level neuro-deductive, approach where (a) we use pre-trained deep neural networks to populate a relational database with facts about each document-image; and (b) we use a form of deductive reasoning, related to meta-interpretive learning of transition systems to learn extraction programs: Given task-specific transitions defined using the entities and relations identified by the neural detectors and a small number of instances (usually 1, sometimes 2) of images and the desired outputs, a resource-bounded meta-interpreter constructs proofs for the instance(s) via logical deduction; a set of logic programs that extract each desired entity is easily synthesized from such proofs. In most cases a single training example together with a noisy-clone of itself suffices to learn a program-set that generalizes well on test documents, at which time the value of each entity is determined by a majority vote across its program-set. We demonstrate our two-level neuro-deductive approach on publicly available datasets ("Patent" and "Doctor's Bills") and also describe its use in a real-life industrial problem.
Generating plausible hair image given limited guidance, such as sparse sketches or low-resolution image, has been made possible with the rise of Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs). Traditional image-to-image translation networks can generate recognizable results, but finer textures are usually lost and blur artifacts commonly exist. In this paper, we propose a two-phase generative model for high-quality hair image synthesis. The two-phase pipeline first generates a coarse image by an existing image translation model, then applies a re-generating network with self-enhancing capability to the coarse image. The self-enhancing capability is achieved by a proposed structure extraction layer, which extracts the texture and orientation map from a hair image. Extensive experiments on two tasks, Sketch2Hair and Hair Super-Resolution, demonstrate that our approach is able to synthesize plausible hair image with finer details, and outperforms the state-of-the-art.
This paper presents the first two editions of Visual Doom AI Competition, held in 2016 and 2017. The challenge was to create bots that compete in a multi-player deathmatch in a first-person shooter (FPS) game, Doom. The bots had to make their decisions based solely on visual information, i.e., a raw screen buffer. To play well, the bots needed to understand their surroundings, navigate, explore, and handle the opponents at the same time. These aspects, together with the competitive multi-agent aspect of the game, make the competition a unique platform for evaluating the state of the art reinforcement learning algorithms. The paper discusses the rules, solutions, results, and statistics that give insight into the agents' behaviors. Best-performing agents are described in more detail. The results of the competition lead to the conclusion that, although reinforcement learning can produce capable Doom bots, they still are not yet able to successfully compete against humans in this game. The paper also revisits the ViZDoom environment, which is a flexible, easy to use, and efficient 3D platform for research for vision-based reinforcement learning, based on a well-recognized first-person perspective game Doom.
This paper discusses and demonstrates the outcomes from our experimentation on Image Captioning. Image captioning is a much more involved task than image recognition or classification, because of the additional challenge of recognizing the interdependence between the objects/concepts in the image and the creation of a succinct sentential narration. Experiments on several labeled datasets show the accuracy of the model and the fluency of the language it learns solely from image descriptions. As a toy application, we apply image captioning to create video captions, and we advance a few hypotheses on the challenges we encountered.