The considerable significance of Anomaly Detection (AD) problem has recently drawn the attention of many researchers. Consequently, the number of proposed methods in this research field has been increased steadily. AD strongly correlates with the important computer vision and image processing tasks such as image/video anomaly, irregularity and sudden event detection. More recently, Deep Neural Networks (DNNs) offer a high performance set of solutions, but at the expense of a heavy computational cost. However, there is a noticeable gap between the previously proposed methods and an applicable real-word approach. Regarding the raised concerns about AD as an ongoing challenging problem, notably in images and videos, the time has come to argue over the pitfalls and prospects of methods have attempted to deal with visual AD tasks. Hereupon, in this survey we intend to conduct an in-depth investigation into the images/videos deep learning based AD methods. We also discuss current challenges and future research directions thoroughly.

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There is a growing interest in the area of machine learning and creativity. This survey presents an overview of the history and the state of the art of computational creativity theories, machine learning techniques, including generative deep learning, and corresponding automatic evaluation methods. After presenting a critical discussion of the key contributions in this area, we outline the current research challenges and emerging opportunities in this field.

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Abnormal event detection in video is a complex computer vision problem that has attracted significant attention in recent years. The complexity of the task arises from the commonly-adopted definition of an abnormal event, that is, a rarely occurring event that typically depends on the surrounding context. Following the standard formulation of abnormal event detection as outlier detection, we propose a background-agnostic framework that learns from training videos containing only normal events. Our framework is composed of an object detector, a set of appearance and motion auto-encoders, and a set of classifiers. Since our framework only looks at object detections, it can be applied to different scenes, provided that normal events are defined identically across scenes and that the single main factor of variation is the background. To overcome the lack of abnormal data during training, we propose an adversarial learning strategy for the auto-encoders. We create a scene-agnostic set of out-of-domain pseudo-abnormal examples, which are correctly reconstructed by the auto-encoders before applying gradient ascent on the pseudo-abnormal examples. We further utilize the pseudo-abnormal examples to serve as abnormal examples when training appearance-based and motion-based binary classifiers to discriminate between normal and abnormal latent features and reconstructions. We compare our framework with the state-of-the-art methods on four benchmark data sets, using various evaluation metrics. Compared to existing methods, the empirical results indicate that our approach achieves favorable performance on all data sets. In addition, we provide region-based and track-based annotations for two large-scale abnormal event detection data sets from the literature, namely ShanghaiTech and Subway.

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The rapid advancements in machine learning, graphics processing technologies and availability of medical imaging data has led to a rapid increase in use of machine learning models in the medical domain. This was exacerbated by the rapid advancements in convolutional neural network (CNN) based architectures, which were adopted by the medical imaging community to assist clinicians in disease diagnosis. Since the grand success of AlexNet in 2012, CNNs have been increasingly used in medical image analysis to improve the efficiency of human clinicians. In recent years, three-dimensional (3D) CNNs have been employed for analysis of medical images. In this paper, we trace the history of how the 3D CNN was developed from its machine learning roots, brief mathematical description of 3D CNN and the preprocessing steps required for medical images before feeding them to 3D CNNs. We review the significant research in the field of 3D medical imaging analysis using 3D CNNs (and its variants) in different medical areas such as classification, segmentation, detection, and localization. We conclude by discussing the challenges associated with the use of 3D CNNs in the medical imaging domain (and the use of deep learning models, in general) and possible future trends in the field.

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Deep Learning (DL) is vulnerable to out-of-distribution and adversarial examples resulting in incorrect outputs. To make DL more robust, several posthoc anomaly detection techniques to detect (and discard) these anomalous samples have been proposed in the recent past. This survey tries to provide a structured and comprehensive overview of the research on anomaly detection for DL based applications. We provide a taxonomy for existing techniques based on their underlying assumptions and adopted approaches. We discuss various techniques in each of the categories and provide the relative strengths and weaknesses of the approaches. Our goal in this survey is to provide an easier yet better understanding of the techniques belonging to different categories in which research has been done on this topic. Finally, we highlight the unsolved research challenges while applying anomaly detection techniques in DL systems and present some high-impact future research directions.

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Image segmentation is a key topic in image processing and computer vision with applications such as scene understanding, medical image analysis, robotic perception, video surveillance, augmented reality, and image compression, among many others. Various algorithms for image segmentation have been developed in the literature. Recently, due to the success of deep learning models in a wide range of vision applications, there has been a substantial amount of works aimed at developing image segmentation approaches using deep learning models. In this survey, we provide a comprehensive review of the literature at the time of this writing, covering a broad spectrum of pioneering works for semantic and instance-level segmentation, including fully convolutional pixel-labeling networks, encoder-decoder architectures, multi-scale and pyramid based approaches, recurrent networks, visual attention models, and generative models in adversarial settings. We investigate the similarity, strengths and challenges of these deep learning models, examine the most widely used datasets, report performances, and discuss promising future research directions in this area.

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Deep learning has been successfully applied to solve various complex problems ranging from big data analytics to computer vision and human-level control. Deep learning advances however have also been employed to create software that can cause threats to privacy, democracy and national security. One of those deep learning-powered applications recently emerged is "deepfake". Deepfake algorithms can create fake images and videos that humans cannot distinguish them from authentic ones. The proposal of technologies that can automatically detect and assess the integrity of digital visual media is therefore indispensable. This paper presents a survey of algorithms used to create deepfakes and, more importantly, methods proposed to detect deepfakes in the literature to date. We present extensive discussions on challenges, research trends and directions related to deepfake technologies. By reviewing the background of deepfakes and state-of-the-art deepfake detection methods, this study provides a comprehensive overview of deepfake techniques and facilitates the development of new and more robust methods to deal with the increasingly challenging deepfakes.

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Object detection, as of one the most fundamental and challenging problems in computer vision, has received great attention in recent years. Its development in the past two decades can be regarded as an epitome of computer vision history. If we think of today's object detection as a technical aesthetics under the power of deep learning, then turning back the clock 20 years we would witness the wisdom of cold weapon era. This paper extensively reviews 400+ papers of object detection in the light of its technical evolution, spanning over a quarter-century's time (from the 1990s to 2019). A number of topics have been covered in this paper, including the milestone detectors in history, detection datasets, metrics, fundamental building blocks of the detection system, speed up techniques, and the recent state of the art detection methods. This paper also reviews some important detection applications, such as pedestrian detection, face detection, text detection, etc, and makes an in-deep analysis of their challenges as well as technical improvements in recent years.

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Benefit from the quick development of deep learning techniques, salient object detection has achieved remarkable progresses recently. However, there still exists following two major challenges that hinder its application in embedded devices, low resolution output and heavy model weight. To this end, this paper presents an accurate yet compact deep network for efficient salient object detection. More specifically, given a coarse saliency prediction in the deepest layer, we first employ residual learning to learn side-output residual features for saliency refinement, which can be achieved with very limited convolutional parameters while keep accuracy. Secondly, we further propose reverse attention to guide such side-output residual learning in a top-down manner. By erasing the current predicted salient regions from side-output features, the network can eventually explore the missing object parts and details which results in high resolution and accuracy. Experiments on six benchmark datasets demonstrate that the proposed approach compares favorably against state-of-the-art methods, and with advantages in terms of simplicity, efficiency (45 FPS) and model size (81 MB).

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Generic object detection, aiming at locating object instances from a large number of predefined categories in natural images, is one of the most fundamental and challenging problems in computer vision. Deep learning techniques have emerged in recent years as powerful methods for learning feature representations directly from data, and have led to remarkable breakthroughs in the field of generic object detection. Given this time of rapid evolution, the goal of this paper is to provide a comprehensive survey of the recent achievements in this field brought by deep learning techniques. More than 250 key contributions are included in this survey, covering many aspects of generic object detection research: leading detection frameworks and fundamental subproblems including object feature representation, object proposal generation, context information modeling and training strategies; evaluation issues, specifically benchmark datasets, evaluation metrics, and state of the art performance. We finish by identifying promising directions for future research.

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