Graph embedding aims to transfer a graph into vectors to facilitate subsequent graph analytics tasks like link prediction and graph clustering. Most approaches on graph embedding focus on preserving the graph structure or minimizing the reconstruction errors for graph data. They have mostly overlooked the embedding distribution of the latent codes, which unfortunately may lead to inferior representation in many cases. In this paper, we present a novel adversarially regularized framework for graph embedding. By employing the graph convolutional network as an encoder, our framework embeds the topological information and node content into a vector representation, from which a graph decoder is further built to reconstruct the input graph. The adversarial training principle is applied to enforce our latent codes to match a prior Gaussian or Uniform distribution. Based on this framework, we derive two variants of adversarial models, the adversarially regularized graph autoencoder (ARGA) and its variational version, adversarially regularized variational graph autoencoder (ARVGA), to learn the graph embedding effectively. We also exploit other potential variations of ARGA and ARVGA to get a deeper understanding on our designs. Experimental results compared among twelve algorithms for link prediction and twenty algorithms for graph clustering validate our solutions.
For better user experience and business effectiveness, Click-Through Rate (CTR) prediction has been one of the most important tasks in E-commerce. Although extensive CTR prediction models have been proposed, learning good representation of items from multimodal features is still less investigated, considering an item in E-commerce usually contains multiple heterogeneous modalities. Previous works either concatenate the multiple modality features, that is equivalent to giving a fixed importance weight to each modality; or learn dynamic weights of different modalities for different items through technique like attention mechanism. However, a problem is that there usually exists common redundant information across multiple modalities. The dynamic weights of different modalities computed by using the redundant information may not correctly reflect the different importance of each modality. To address this, we explore the complementarity and redundancy of modalities by considering modality-specific and modality-invariant features differently. We propose a novel Multimodal Adversarial Representation Network (MARN) for the CTR prediction task. A multimodal attention network first calculates the weights of multiple modalities for each item according to its modality-specific features. Then a multimodal adversarial network learns modality-invariant representations where a double-discriminators strategy is introduced. Finally, we achieve the multimodal item representations by combining both modality-specific and modality-invariant representations. We conduct extensive experiments on both public and industrial datasets, and the proposed method consistently achieves remarkable improvements to the state-of-the-art methods. Moreover, the approach has been deployed in an operational E-commerce system and online A/B testing further demonstrates the effectiveness.
We present a new method to learn video representations from large-scale unlabeled video data. Ideally, this representation will be generic and transferable, directly usable for new tasks such as action recognition and zero or few-shot learning. We formulate unsupervised representation learning as a multi-modal, multi-task learning problem, where the representations are shared across different modalities via distillation. Further, we introduce the concept of loss function evolution by using an evolutionary search algorithm to automatically find optimal combination of loss functions capturing many (self-supervised) tasks and modalities. Thirdly, we propose an unsupervised representation evaluation metric using distribution matching to a large unlabeled dataset as a prior constraint, based on Zipf's law. This unsupervised constraint, which is not guided by any labeling, produces similar results to weakly-supervised, task-specific ones. The proposed unsupervised representation learning results in a single RGB network and outperforms previous methods. Notably, it is also more effective than several label-based methods (e.g., ImageNet), with the exception of large, fully labeled video datasets.
We study the impact of neural networks in text classification. Our focus is on training deep neural networks with proper weight initialization and greedy layer-wise pretraining. Results are compared with 1-layer neural networks and Support Vector Machines. We work with a dataset of labeled messages from the Twitter microblogging service and aim to predict weather conditions. A feature extraction procedure specific for the task is proposed, which applies dimensionality reduction using Latent Semantic Analysis. Our results show that neural networks outperform Support Vector Machines with Gaussian kernels, noticing performance gains from introducing additional hidden layers with nonlinearities. The impact of using Nesterov's Accelerated Gradient in backpropagation is also studied. We conclude that deep neural networks are a reasonable approach for text classification and propose further ideas to improve performance.
Unsupervised node embedding methods (e.g., DeepWalk, LINE, and node2vec) have attracted growing interests given their simplicity and effectiveness. However, although these methods have been proved effective in a variety of applications, none of the existing work has analyzed the robustness of them. This could be very risky if these methods are attacked by an adversarial party. In this paper, we take the task of link prediction as an example, which is one of the most fundamental problems for graph analysis, and introduce a data positioning attack to node embedding methods. We give a complete characterization of attacker's utilities and present efficient solutions to adversarial attacks for two popular node embedding methods: DeepWalk and LINE. We evaluate our proposed attack model on multiple real-world graphs. Experimental results show that our proposed model can significantly affect the results of link prediction by slightly changing the graph structures (e.g., adding or removing a few edges). We also show that our proposed model is very general and can be transferable across different embedding methods. Finally, we conduct a case study on a coauthor network to better understand our attack method.
Recently, graph neural networks (GNNs) have revolutionized the field of graph representation learning through effectively learned node embeddings, and achieved state-of-the-art results in tasks such as node classification and link prediction. However, current GNN methods are inherently flat and do not learn hierarchical representations of graphs---a limitation that is especially problematic for the task of graph classification, where the goal is to predict the label associated with an entire graph. Here we propose DiffPool, a differentiable graph pooling module that can generate hierarchical representations of graphs and can be combined with various graph neural network architectures in an end-to-end fashion. DiffPool learns a differentiable soft cluster assignment for nodes at each layer of a deep GNN, mapping nodes to a set of clusters, which then form the coarsened input for the next GNN layer. Our experimental results show that combining existing GNN methods with DiffPool yields an average improvement of 5-10% accuracy on graph classification benchmarks, compared to all existing pooling approaches, achieving a new state-of-the-art on four out of five benchmark data sets.
Distant supervision can effectively label data for relation extraction, but suffers from the noise labeling problem. Recent works mainly perform soft bag-level noise reduction strategies to find the relatively better samples in a sentence bag, which is suboptimal compared with making a hard decision of false positive samples in sentence level. In this paper, we introduce an adversarial learning framework, which we named DSGAN, to learn a sentence-level true-positive generator. Inspired by Generative Adversarial Networks, we regard the positive samples generated by the generator as the negative samples to train the discriminator. The optimal generator is obtained until the discrimination ability of the discriminator has the greatest decline. We adopt the generator to filter distant supervision training dataset and redistribute the false positive instances into the negative set, in which way to provide a cleaned dataset for relation classification. The experimental results show that the proposed strategy significantly improves the performance of distant supervision relation extraction comparing to state-of-the-art systems.
Network embedding has become a hot research topic recently which can provide low-dimensional feature representations for many machine learning applications. Current work focuses on either (1) whether the embedding is designed as an unsupervised learning task by explicitly preserving the structural connectivity in the network, or (2) whether the embedding is a by-product during the supervised learning of a specific discriminative task in a deep neural network. In this paper, we focus on bridging the gap of the two lines of the research. We propose to adapt the Generative Adversarial model to perform network embedding, in which the generator is trying to generate vertex pairs, while the discriminator tries to distinguish the generated vertex pairs from real connections (edges) in the network. Wasserstein-1 distance is adopted to train the generator to gain better stability. We develop three variations of models, including GANE which applies cosine similarity, GANE-O1 which preserves the first-order proximity, and GANE-O2 which tries to preserves the second-order proximity of the network in the low-dimensional embedded vector space. We later prove that GANE-O2 has the same objective function as GANE-O1 when negative sampling is applied to simplify the training process in GANE-O2. Experiments with real-world network datasets demonstrate that our models constantly outperform state-of-the-art solutions with significant improvements on precision in link prediction, as well as on visualizations and accuracy in clustering tasks.
Network embedding represents nodes in a continuous vector space and preserves structure information from the Network. Existing methods usually adopt a "one-size-fits-all" approach when concerning multi-scale structure information, such as first- and second-order proximity of nodes, ignoring the fact that different scales play different roles in the embedding learning. In this paper, we propose an Attention-based Adversarial Autoencoder Network Embedding(AAANE) framework, which promotes the collaboration of different scales and lets them vote for robust representations. The proposed AAANE consists of two components: 1) Attention-based autoencoder effectively capture the highly non-linear network structure, which can de-emphasize irrelevant scales during training. 2) An adversarial regularization guides the autoencoder learn robust representations by matching the posterior distribution of the latent embeddings to given prior distribution. This is the first attempt to introduce attention mechanisms to multi-scale network embedding. Experimental results on real-world networks show that our learned attention parameters are different for every network and the proposed approach outperforms existing state-of-the-art approaches for network embedding.
Methods that learn representations of nodes in a graph play a critical role in network analysis since they enable many downstream learning tasks. We propose Graph2Gauss - an approach that can efficiently learn versatile node embeddings on large scale (attributed) graphs that show strong performance on tasks such as link prediction and node classification. Unlike most approaches that represent nodes as point vectors in a low-dimensional continuous space, we embed each node as a Gaussian distribution, allowing us to capture uncertainty about the representation. Furthermore, we propose an unsupervised method that handles inductive learning scenarios and is applicable to different types of graphs: plain/attributed, directed/undirected. By leveraging both the network structure and the associated node attributes, we are able to generalize to unseen nodes without additional training. To learn the embeddings we adopt a personalized ranking formulation w.r.t. the node distances that exploits the natural ordering of the nodes imposed by the network structure. Experiments on real world networks demonstrate the high performance of our approach, outperforming state-of-the-art network embedding methods on several different tasks. Additionally, we demonstrate the benefits of modeling uncertainty - by analyzing it we can estimate neighborhood diversity and detect the intrinsic latent dimensionality of a graph.
We introduce an adversarial learning framework, which we named KBGAN, to improve the performances of a wide range of existing knowledge graph embedding models. Because knowledge graph datasets typically only contain positive facts, sampling useful negative training examples is a non-trivial task. Replacing the head or tail entity of a fact with a uniformly randomly selected entity is a conventional method for generating negative facts used by many previous works, but the majority of negative facts generated in this way can be easily discriminated from positive facts, and will contribute little towards the training. Inspired by generative adversarial networks (GANs), we use one knowledge graph embedding model as a negative sample generator to assist the training of our desired model, which acts as the discriminator in GANs. The objective of the generator is to generate difficult negative samples that can maximize their likeliness determined by the discriminator, while the discriminator minimizes its training loss. This framework is independent of the concrete form of generator and discriminator, and therefore can utilize a wide variety of knowledge graph embedding models as its building blocks. In experiments, we adversarially train two translation-based models, TransE and TransD, each with assistance from one of the two probability-based models, DistMult and ComplEx. We evaluate the performances of KBGAN on the link prediction task, using three knowledge base completion datasets: FB15k-237, WN18 and WN18RR. Experimental results show that adversarial training substantially improves the performances of target embedding models under various settings.