Contextual multi-armed bandit (MAB) achieves cutting-edge performance on a variety of problems. When it comes to real-world scenarios such as recommendation system and online advertising, however, it is essential to consider the resource consumption of exploration. In practice, there is typically non-zero cost associated with executing a recommendation (arm) in the environment, and hence, the policy should be learned with a fixed exploration cost constraint. It is challenging to learn a global optimal policy directly, since it is a NP-hard problem and significantly complicates the exploration and exploitation trade-off of bandit algorithms. Existing approaches focus on solving the problems by adopting the greedy policy which estimates the expected rewards and costs and uses a greedy selection based on each arm's expected reward/cost ratio using historical observation until the exploration resource is exhausted. However, existing methods are hard to extend to infinite time horizon, since the learning process will be terminated when there is no more resource. In this paper, we propose a hierarchical adaptive contextual bandit method (HATCH) to conduct the policy learning of contextual bandits with a budget constraint. HATCH adopts an adaptive method to allocate the exploration resource based on the remaining resource/time and the estimation of reward distribution among different user contexts. In addition, we utilize full of contextual feature information to find the best personalized recommendation. Finally, in order to prove the theoretical guarantee, we present a regret bound analysis and prove that HATCH achieves a regret bound as low as $O(\sqrt{T})$. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed method on both synthetic data sets and the real-world applications.

5
下载
关闭预览

相关内容

Quantum hardware and quantum-inspired algorithms are becoming increasingly popular for combinatorial optimization. However, these algorithms may require careful hyperparameter tuning for each problem instance. We use a reinforcement learning agent in conjunction with a quantum-inspired algorithm to solve the Ising energy minimization problem, which is equivalent to the Maximum Cut problem. The agent controls the algorithm by tuning one of its parameters with the goal of improving recently seen solutions. We propose a new Rescaled Ranked Reward (R3) method that enables stable single-player version of self-play training that helps the agent to escape local optima. The training on any problem instance can be accelerated by applying transfer learning from an agent trained on randomly generated problems. Our approach allows sampling high-quality solutions to the Ising problem with high probability and outperforms both baseline heuristics and a black-box hyperparameter optimization approach.

0
4
下载
预览

Recommender systems often face heterogeneous datasets containing highly personalized historical data of users, where no single model could give the best recommendation for every user. We observe this ubiquitous phenomenon on both public and private datasets and address the model selection problem in pursuit of optimizing the quality of recommendation for each user. We propose a meta-learning framework to facilitate user-level adaptive model selection in recommender systems. In this framework, a collection of recommenders is trained with data from all users, on top of which a model selector is trained via meta-learning to select the best single model for each user with the user-specific historical data. We conduct extensive experiments on two public datasets and a real-world production dataset, demonstrating that our proposed framework achieves improvements over single model baselines and sample-level model selector in terms of AUC and LogLoss. In particular, the improvements may lead to huge profit gain when deployed in online recommender systems.

0
4
下载
预览

Meta learning is a promising solution to few-shot learning problems. However, existing meta learning methods are restricted to the scenarios where training and application tasks share the same out-put structure. To obtain a meta model applicable to the tasks with new structures, it is required to collect new training data and repeat the time-consuming meta training procedure. This makes them inefficient or even inapplicable in learning to solve heterogeneous few-shot learning tasks. We thus develop a novel and principled HierarchicalMeta Learning (HML) method. Different from existing methods that only focus on optimizing the adaptability of a meta model to similar tasks, HML also explicitly optimizes its generalizability across heterogeneous tasks. To this end, HML first factorizes a set of similar training tasks into heterogeneous ones and trains the meta model over them at two levels to maximize adaptation and generalization performance respectively. The resultant model can then directly generalize to new tasks. Extensive experiments on few-shot classification and regression problems clearly demonstrate the superiority of HML over fine-tuning and state-of-the-art meta learning approaches in terms of generalization across heterogeneous tasks.

0
7
下载
预览

We know SGAN may have a risk of gradient vanishing. A significant improvement is WGAN, with the help of 1-Lipschitz constraint on discriminator to prevent from gradient vanishing. Is there any GAN having no gradient vanishing and no 1-Lipschitz constraint on discriminator? We do find one, called GAN-QP. To construct a new framework of Generative Adversarial Network (GAN) usually includes three steps: 1. choose a probability divergence; 2. convert it into a dual form; 3. play a min-max game. In this articles, we demonstrate that the first step is not necessary. We can analyse the property of divergence and even construct new divergence in dual space directly. As a reward, we obtain a simpler alternative of WGAN: GAN-QP. We demonstrate that GAN-QP have a better performance than WGAN in theory and practice.

0
4
下载
预览

In this paper, we propose a novel sequence-aware recommendation model. Our model utilizes self-attention mechanism to infer the item-item relationship from user's historical interactions. With self-attention, it is able to estimate the relative weights of each item in user interaction trajectories to learn better representations for user's transient interests. The model is finally trained in a metric learning framework, taking both short-term and long-term intentions into consideration. Experiments on a wide range of datasets on different domains demonstrate that our approach outperforms the state-of-the-art by a wide margin.

0
5
下载
预览

Model-based methods for recommender systems have been studied extensively in recent years. In systems with large corpus, however, the calculation cost for the learnt model to predict all user-item preferences is tremendous, which makes full corpus retrieval extremely difficult. To overcome the calculation barriers, models such as matrix factorization resort to inner product form (i.e., model user-item preference as the inner product of user, item latent factors) and indexes to facilitate efficient approximate k-nearest neighbor searches. However, it still remains challenging to incorporate more expressive interaction forms between user and item features, e.g., interactions through deep neural networks, because of the calculation cost. In this paper, we focus on the problem of introducing arbitrary advanced models to recommender systems with large corpus. We propose a novel tree-based method which can provide logarithmic complexity w.r.t. corpus size even with more expressive models such as deep neural networks. Our main idea is to predict user interests from coarse to fine by traversing tree nodes in a top-down fashion and making decisions for each user-node pair. We also show that the tree structure can be jointly learnt towards better compatibility with users' interest distribution and hence facilitate both training and prediction. Experimental evaluations with two large-scale real-world datasets show that the proposed method significantly outperforms traditional methods. Online A/B test results in Taobao display advertising platform also demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method in production environments.

0
8
下载
预览

State-of-the-art recommendation algorithms -- especially the collaborative filtering (CF) based approaches with shallow or deep models -- usually work with various unstructured information sources for recommendation, such as textual reviews, visual images, and various implicit or explicit feedbacks. Though structured knowledge bases were considered in content-based approaches, they have been largely neglected recently due to the availability of vast amount of data, and the learning power of many complex models. However, structured knowledge bases exhibit unique advantages in personalized recommendation systems. When the explicit knowledge about users and items is considered for recommendation, the system could provide highly customized recommendations based on users' historical behaviors. A great challenge for using knowledge bases for recommendation is how to integrated large-scale structured and unstructured data, while taking advantage of collaborative filtering for highly accurate performance. Recent achievements on knowledge base embedding sheds light on this problem, which makes it possible to learn user and item representations while preserving the structure of their relationship with external knowledge. In this work, we propose to reason over knowledge base embeddings for personalized recommendation. Specifically, we propose a knowledge base representation learning approach to embed heterogeneous entities for recommendation. Experimental results on real-world dataset verified the superior performance of our approach compared with state-of-the-art baselines.

0
21
下载
预览

A recommender system aims to recommend items that a user is interested in among many items. The need for the recommender system has been expanded by the information explosion. Various approaches have been suggested for providing meaningful recommendations to users. One of the proposed approaches is to consider a recommender system as a Markov decision process (MDP) problem and try to solve it using reinforcement learning (RL). However, existing RL-based methods have an obvious drawback. To solve an MDP in a recommender system, they encountered a problem with the large number of discrete actions that bring RL to a larger class of problems. In this paper, we propose a novel RL-based recommender system. We formulate a recommender system as a gridworld game by using a biclustering technique that can reduce the state and action space significantly. Using biclustering not only reduces space but also improves the recommendation quality effectively handling the cold-start problem. In addition, our approach can provide users with some explanation why the system recommends certain items. Lastly, we examine the proposed algorithm on a real-world dataset and achieve a better performance than the widely used recommendation algorithm.

0
4
下载
预览

Recommender systems play a crucial role in mitigating the problem of information overload by suggesting users' personalized items or services. The vast majority of traditional recommender systems consider the recommendation procedure as a static process and make recommendations following a fixed strategy. In this paper, we propose a novel recommender system with the capability of continuously improving its strategies during the interactions with users. We model the sequential interactions between users and a recommender system as a Markov Decision Process (MDP) and leverage Reinforcement Learning (RL) to automatically learn the optimal strategies via recommending trial-and-error items and receiving reinforcements of these items from users' feedbacks. In particular, we introduce an online user-agent interacting environment simulator, which can pre-train and evaluate model parameters offline before applying the model online. Moreover, we validate the importance of list-wise recommendations during the interactions between users and agent, and develop a novel approach to incorporate them into the proposed framework LIRD for list-wide recommendations. The experimental results based on a real-world e-commerce dataset demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed framework.

0
12
下载
预览

Recommendation system is a common demand in daily life and matrix completion is a widely adopted technique for this task. However, most matrix completion methods lack semantic interpretation and usually result in weak-semantic recommendations. To this end, this paper proposes a $S$emantic $A$nalysis approach for $R$ecommendation systems $(SAR)$, which applies a two-level hierarchical generative process that assigns semantic properties and categories for user and item. $SAR$ learns semantic representations of users/items merely from user ratings on items, which offers a new path to recommendation by semantic matching with the learned representations. Extensive experiments demonstrate $SAR$ outperforms other state-of-the-art baselines substantially.

0
6
下载
预览
小贴士
相关论文
Dmitrii Beloborodov,A. E. Ulanov,Jakob N. Foerster,Shimon Whiteson,A. I. Lvovsky
4+阅读 · 2020年2月14日
Mi Luo,Fei Chen,Pengxiang Cheng,Zhenhua Dong,Xiuqiang He,Jiashi Feng,Zhenguo Li
4+阅读 · 2020年2月13日
Yingtian Zou,Jiashi Feng
7+阅读 · 2019年4月19日
Next Item Recommendation with Self-Attention
Shuai Zhang,Yi Tay,Lina Yao,Aixin Sun
5+阅读 · 2018年8月25日
Han Zhu,Xiang Li,Pengye Zhang,Guozheng Li,Jie He,Han Li,Kun Gai
8+阅读 · 2018年5月21日
Yongfeng Zhang,Qingyao Ai,Xu Chen,Pengfei Wang
21+阅读 · 2018年3月22日
Sungwoon Choi,Heonseok Ha,Uiwon Hwang,Chanju Kim,Jung-Woo Ha,Sungroh Yoon
4+阅读 · 2018年1月17日
Xiangyu Zhao,Liang Zhang,Zhuoye Ding,Dawei Yin,Yihong Zhao,Jiliang Tang
12+阅读 · 2018年1月5日
Han Xiao,Lian Meng,Minlie Huang,Xiaoyan Zhu
6+阅读 · 2017年12月2日
相关资讯
LibRec 精选:AutoML for Contextual Bandits
LibRec智能推荐
6+阅读 · 2019年9月19日
强化学习三篇论文 避免遗忘等
CreateAMind
12+阅读 · 2019年5月24日
Hierarchically Structured Meta-learning
CreateAMind
13+阅读 · 2019年5月22日
Transferring Knowledge across Learning Processes
CreateAMind
8+阅读 · 2019年5月18日
LibRec 精选:CCF TPCI 的推荐系统专刊征稿
LibRec智能推荐
4+阅读 · 2019年1月12日
Unsupervised Learning via Meta-Learning
CreateAMind
32+阅读 · 2019年1月3日
Disentangled的假设的探讨
CreateAMind
8+阅读 · 2018年12月10日
Hierarchical Imitation - Reinforcement Learning
CreateAMind
16+阅读 · 2018年5月25日
可解释的CNN
CreateAMind
13+阅读 · 2017年10月5日
Top
微信扫码咨询专知VIP会员