Previous cross-lingual knowledge graph (KG) alignment studies rely on entity embeddings derived only from monolingual KG structural information, which may fail at matching entities that have different facts in two KGs. In this paper, we introduce the topic entity graph, a local sub-graph of an entity, to represent entities with their contextual information in KG. From this view, the KB-alignment task can be formulated as a graph matching problem; and we further propose a graph-attention based solution, which first matches all entities in two topic entity graphs, and then jointly model the local matching information to derive a graph-level matching vector. Experiments show that our model outperforms previous state-of-the-art methods by a large margin.
Graph neural networks (GNNs) have emerged as a powerful paradigm for embedding-based entity alignment due to their capability of identifying isomorphic subgraphs. However, in real knowledge graphs (KGs), the counterpart entities usually have non-isomorphic neighborhood structures, which easily causes GNNs to yield different representations for them. To tackle this problem, we propose a new KG alignment network, namely AliNet, aiming at mitigating the non-isomorphism of neighborhood structures in an end-to-end manner. As the direct neighbors of counterpart entities are usually dissimilar due to the schema heterogeneity, AliNet introduces distant neighbors to expand the overlap between their neighborhood structures. It employs an attention mechanism to highlight helpful distant neighbors and reduce noises. Then, it controls the aggregation of both direct and distant neighborhood information using a gating mechanism. We further propose a relation loss to refine entity representations. We perform thorough experiments with detailed ablation studies and analyses on five entity alignment datasets, demonstrating the effectiveness of AliNet.
Multi-paragraph reasoning is indispensable for open-domain question answering (OpenQA), which receives less attention in the current OpenQA systems. In this work, we propose a knowledge-enhanced graph neural network (KGNN), which performs reasoning over multiple paragraphs with entities. To explicitly capture the entities' relatedness, KGNN utilizes relational facts in knowledge graph to build the entity graph. The experimental results show that KGNN outperforms in both distractor and full wiki settings than baselines methods on HotpotQA dataset. And our further analysis illustrates KGNN is effective and robust with more retrieved paragraphs.
Knowledge graph (KG) embedding encodes the entities and relations from a KG into low-dimensional vector spaces to support various applications such as KG completion, question answering, and recommender systems. In real world, knowledge graphs (KGs) are dynamic and evolve over time with addition or deletion of triples. However, most existing models focus on embedding static KGs while neglecting dynamics. To adapt to the changes in a KG, these models need to be re-trained on the whole KG with a high time cost. In this paper, to tackle the aforementioned problem, we propose a new context-aware Dynamic Knowledge Graph Embedding (DKGE) method which supports the embedding learning in an online fashion. DKGE introduces two different representations (i.e., knowledge embedding and contextual element embedding) for each entity and each relation, in the joint modeling of entities and relations as well as their contexts, by employing two attentive graph convolutional networks, a gate strategy, and translation operations. This effectively helps limit the impacts of a KG update in certain regions, not in the entire graph, so that DKGE can rapidly acquire the updated KG embedding by a proposed online learning algorithm. Furthermore, DKGE can also learn KG embedding from scratch. Experiments on the tasks of link prediction and question answering in a dynamic environment demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of DKGE.
We study the problem of embedding-based entity alignment between knowledge graphs (KGs). Previous works mainly focus on the relational structure of entities. Some further incorporate another type of features, such as attributes, for refinement. However, a vast of entity features are still unexplored or not equally treated together, which impairs the accuracy and robustness of embedding-based entity alignment. In this paper, we propose a novel framework that unifies multiple views of entities to learn embeddings for entity alignment. Specifically, we embed entities based on the views of entity names, relations and attributes, with several combination strategies. Furthermore, we design some cross-KG inference methods to enhance the alignment between two KGs. Our experiments on real-world datasets show that the proposed framework significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art embedding-based entity alignment methods. The selected views, cross-KG inference and combination strategies all contribute to the performance improvement.
The recent proliferation of knowledge graphs (KGs) coupled with incomplete or partial information, in the form of missing relations (links) between entities, has fueled a lot of research on knowledge base completion (also known as relation prediction). Several recent works suggest that convolutional neural network (CNN) based models generate richer and more expressive feature embeddings and hence also perform well on relation prediction. However, we observe that these KG embeddings treat triples independently and thus fail to cover the complex and hidden information that is inherently implicit in the local neighborhood surrounding a triple. To this effect, our paper proposes a novel attention based feature embedding that captures both entity and relation features in any given entity's neighborhood. Additionally, we also encapsulate relation clusters and multihop relations in our model. Our empirical study offers insights into the efficacy of our attention based model and we show marked performance gains in comparison to state of the art methods on all datasets.
To provide more accurate, diverse, and explainable recommendation, it is compulsory to go beyond modeling user-item interactions and take side information into account. Traditional methods like factorization machine (FM) cast it as a supervised learning problem, which assumes each interaction as an independent instance with side information encoded. Due to the overlook of the relations among instances or items (e.g., the director of a movie is also an actor of another movie), these methods are insufficient to distill the collaborative signal from the collective behaviors of users. In this work, we investigate the utility of knowledge graph (KG), which breaks down the independent interaction assumption by linking items with their attributes. We argue that in such a hybrid structure of KG and user-item graph, high-order relations --- which connect two items with one or multiple linked attributes --- are an essential factor for successful recommendation. We propose a new method named Knowledge Graph Attention Network (KGAT) which explicitly models the high-order connectivities in KG in an end-to-end fashion. It recursively propagates the embeddings from a node's neighbors (which can be users, items, or attributes) to refine the node's embedding, and employs an attention mechanism to discriminate the importance of the neighbors. Our KGAT is conceptually advantageous to existing KG-based recommendation methods, which either exploit high-order relations by extracting paths or implicitly modeling them with regularization. Empirical results on three public benchmarks show that KGAT significantly outperforms state-of-the-art methods like Neural FM and RippleNet. Further studies verify the efficacy of embedding propagation for high-order relation modeling and the interpretability benefits brought by the attention mechanism.
This paper explores the problem of matching entities across different knowledge graphs. Given a query entity in one knowledge graph, we wish to find the corresponding real-world entity in another knowledge graph. We formalize this problem and present two large-scale datasets for this task based on exiting cross-ontology links between DBpedia and Wikidata, focused on several hundred thousand ambiguous entities. Using a classification-based approach, we find that a simple multi-layered perceptron based on representations derived from RDF2Vec graph embeddings of entities in each knowledge graph is sufficient to achieve high accuracy, with only small amounts of training data. The contributions of our work are datasets for examining this problem and strong baselines on which future work can be based.
Knowledge graphs are large graph-structured databases of facts, which typically suffer from incompleteness. Link prediction is the task of inferring missing relations (links) between entities (nodes) in a knowledge graph. We approach this task using a hypernetwork architecture to generate convolutional layer filters specific to each relation and apply those filters to the subject entity embeddings. This architecture enables a trade-off between non-linear expressiveness and the number of parameters to learn. Our model simplifies the entity and relation embedding interactions introduced by the predecessor convolutional model, while outperforming all previous approaches to link prediction across all standard link prediction datasets.
The potential of graph convolutional neural networks for the task of zero-shot learning has been demonstrated recently. These models are highly sample efficient as related concepts in the graph structure share statistical strength allowing generalization to new classes when faced with a lack of data. However, knowledge from distant nodes can get diluted when propagating through intermediate nodes, because current approaches to zero-shot learning use graph propagation schemes that perform Laplacian smoothing at each layer. We show that extensive smoothing does not help the task of regressing classifier weights in zero-shot learning. In order to still incorporate information from distant nodes and utilize the graph structure, we propose an Attentive Dense Graph Propagation Module (ADGPM). ADGPM allows us to exploit the hierarchical graph structure of the knowledge graph through additional connections. These connections are added based on a node's relationship to its ancestors and descendants and an attention scheme is further used to weigh their contribution depending on the distance to the node. Finally, we illustrate that finetuning of the feature representation after training the ADGPM leads to considerable improvements. Our method achieves competitive results, outperforming previous zero-shot learning approaches.
Knowledge graphs contain rich relational structures of the world, and thus complement data-driven machine learning in heterogeneous data. One of the most effective methods in representing knowledge graphs is to embed symbolic relations and entities into continuous spaces, where relations are approximately linear translation between projected images of entities in the relation space. However, state-of-the-art relation projection methods such as TransR, TransD or TransSparse do not model the correlation between relations, and thus are not scalable to complex knowledge graphs with thousands of relations, both in computational demand and in statistical robustness. To this end we introduce TransF, a novel translation-based method which mitigates the burden of relation projection by explicitly modeling the basis subspaces of projection matrices. As a result, TransF is far more light weight than the existing projection methods, and is robust when facing a high number of relations. Experimental results on the canonical link prediction task show that our proposed model outperforms competing rivals by a large margin and achieves state-of-the-art performance. Especially, TransF improves by 9%/5% in the head/tail entity prediction task for N-to-1/1-to-N relations over the best performing translation-based method.