In the last years, neural networks have proven to be a powerful framework for various image analysis problems. However, some application domains have specific limitations. Notably, digital pathology is an example of such fields due to tremendous image sizes and quite limited number of training examples available. In this paper, we adopt state-of-the-art convolutional neural networks (CNN) architectures for digital pathology images analysis. We propose to classify image patches to increase effective sample size and then to apply an ensembling technique to build prediction for the original images. To validate the developed approaches, we conducted experiments with \textit{Breast Cancer Histology Challenge} dataset and obtained 90\% accuracy for the 4-class tissue classification task.

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神经网络(Neural Networks)是世界上三个最古老的神经建模学会的档案期刊:国际神经网络学会(INNS)、欧洲神经网络学会(ENNS)和日本神经网络学会(JNNS)。神经网络提供了一个论坛,以发展和培育一个国际社会的学者和实践者感兴趣的所有方面的神经网络和相关方法的计算智能。神经网络欢迎高质量论文的提交,有助于全面的神经网络研究,从行为和大脑建模,学习算法,通过数学和计算分析,系统的工程和技术应用,大量使用神经网络的概念和技术。这一独特而广泛的范围促进了生物和技术研究之间的思想交流,并有助于促进对生物启发的计算智能感兴趣的跨学科社区的发展。因此,神经网络编委会代表的专家领域包括心理学,神经生物学,计算机科学,工程,数学,物理。该杂志发表文章、信件和评论以及给编辑的信件、社论、时事、软件调查和专利信息。文章发表在五个部分之一:认知科学,神经科学,学习系统,数学和计算分析、工程和应用。 官网地址:http://dblp.uni-trier.de/db/journals/nn/

Semantic segmentation is one of the basic topics in computer vision, it aims to assign semantic labels to every pixel of an image. Unbalanced semantic label distribution could have a negative influence on segmentation accuracy. In this paper, we investigate using data augmentation approach to balance the semantic label distribution in order to improve segmentation performance. We propose using generative adversarial networks (GANs) to generate realistic images for improving the performance of semantic segmentation networks. Experimental results show that the proposed method can not only improve segmentation performance on those classes with low accuracy, but also obtain 1.3% to 2.1% increase in average segmentation accuracy. It shows that this augmentation method can boost accuracy and be easily applicable to any other segmentation models.

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Decision making in automated driving is highly specific to the environment and thus semantic segmentation plays a key role in recognizing the objects in the environment around the car. Pixel level classification once considered a challenging task which is now becoming mature to be productized in a car. However, semantic annotation is time consuming and quite expensive. Synthetic datasets with domain adaptation techniques have been used to alleviate the lack of large annotated datasets. In this work, we explore an alternate approach of leveraging the annotations of other tasks to improve semantic segmentation. Recently, multi-task learning became a popular paradigm in automated driving which demonstrates joint learning of multiple tasks improves overall performance of each tasks. Motivated by this, we use auxiliary tasks like depth estimation to improve the performance of semantic segmentation task. We propose adaptive task loss weighting techniques to address scale issues in multi-task loss functions which become more crucial in auxiliary tasks. We experimented on automotive datasets including SYNTHIA and KITTI and obtained 3% and 5% improvement in accuracy respectively.

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Recently, Neural Architecture Search (NAS) has successfully identified neural network architectures that exceed human designed ones on large-scale image classification problems. In this paper, we study NAS for semantic image segmentation, an important computer vision task that assigns a semantic label to every pixel in an image. Existing works often focus on searching the repeatable cell structure, while hand-designing the outer network structure that controls the spatial resolution changes. This choice simplifies the search space, but becomes increasingly problematic for dense image prediction which exhibits a lot more network level architectural variations. Therefore, we propose to search the network level structure in addition to the cell level structure, which forms a hierarchical architecture search space. We present a network level search space that includes many popular designs, and develop a formulation that allows efficient gradient-based architecture search (3 P100 GPU days on Cityscapes images). We demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method on the challenging Cityscapes, PASCAL VOC 2012, and ADE20K datasets. Without any ImageNet pretraining, our architecture searched specifically for semantic image segmentation attains state-of-the-art performance.

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Deep neural network models used for medical image segmentation are large because they are trained with high-resolution three-dimensional (3D) images. Graphics processing units (GPUs) are widely used to accelerate the trainings. However, the memory on a GPU is not large enough to train the models. A popular approach to tackling this problem is patch-based method, which divides a large image into small patches and trains the models with these small patches. However, this method would degrade the segmentation quality if a target object spans multiple patches. In this paper, we propose a novel approach for 3D medical image segmentation that utilizes the data-swapping, which swaps out intermediate data from GPU memory to CPU memory to enlarge the effective GPU memory size, for training high-resolution 3D medical images without patching. We carefully tuned parameters in the data-swapping method to obtain the best training performance for 3D U-Net, a widely used deep neural network model for medical image segmentation. We applied our tuning to train 3D U-Net with full-size images of 192 x 192 x 192 voxels in brain tumor dataset. As a result, communication overhead, which is the most important issue, was reduced by 17.1%. Compared with the patch-based method for patches of 128 x 128 x 128 voxels, our training for full-size images achieved improvement on the mean Dice score by 4.48% and 5.32 % for detecting whole tumor sub-region and tumor core sub-region, respectively. The total training time was reduced from 164 hours to 47 hours, resulting in 3.53 times of acceleration.

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3D image segmentation plays an important role in biomedical image analysis. Many 2D and 3D deep learning models have achieved state-of-the-art segmentation performance on 3D biomedical image datasets. Yet, 2D and 3D models have their own strengths and weaknesses, and by unifying them together, one may be able to achieve more accurate results. In this paper, we propose a new ensemble learning framework for 3D biomedical image segmentation that combines the merits of 2D and 3D models. First, we develop a fully convolutional network based meta-learner to learn how to improve the results from 2D and 3D models (base-learners). Then, to minimize over-fitting for our sophisticated meta-learner, we devise a new training method that uses the results of the base-learners as multiple versions of "ground truths". Furthermore, since our new meta-learner training scheme does not depend on manual annotation, it can utilize abundant unlabeled 3D image data to further improve the model. Extensive experiments on two public datasets (the HVSMR 2016 Challenge dataset and the mouse piriform cortex dataset) show that our approach is effective under fully-supervised, semi-supervised, and transductive settings, and attains superior performance over state-of-the-art image segmentation methods.

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In this paper, we focus on three problems in deep learning based medical image segmentation. Firstly, U-net, as a popular model for medical image segmentation, is difficult to train when convolutional layers increase even though a deeper network usually has a better generalization ability because of more learnable parameters. Secondly, the exponential ReLU (ELU), as an alternative of ReLU, is not much different from ReLU when the network of interest gets deep. Thirdly, the Dice loss, as one of the pervasive loss functions for medical image segmentation, is not effective when the prediction is close to ground truth and will cause oscillation during training. To address the aforementioned three problems, we propose and validate a deeper network that can fit medical image datasets that are usually small in the sample size. Meanwhile, we propose a new loss function to accelerate the learning process and a combination of different activation functions to improve the network performance. Our experimental results suggest that our network is comparable or superior to state-of-the-art methods.

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With pervasive applications of medical imaging in health-care, biomedical image segmentation plays a central role in quantitative analysis, clinical diagno- sis, and medical intervention. Since manual anno- tation su ers limited reproducibility, arduous e orts, and excessive time, automatic segmentation is desired to process increasingly larger scale histopathological data. Recently, deep neural networks (DNNs), par- ticularly fully convolutional networks (FCNs), have been widely applied to biomedical image segmenta- tion, attaining much improved performance. At the same time, quantization of DNNs has become an ac- tive research topic, which aims to represent weights with less memory (precision) to considerably reduce memory and computation requirements of DNNs while maintaining acceptable accuracy. In this paper, we apply quantization techniques to FCNs for accurate biomedical image segmentation. Unlike existing litera- ture on quantization which primarily targets memory and computation complexity reduction, we apply quan- tization as a method to reduce over tting in FCNs for better accuracy. Speci cally, we focus on a state-of- the-art segmentation framework, suggestive annotation [22], which judiciously extracts representative annota- tion samples from the original training dataset, obtain- ing an e ective small-sized balanced training dataset. We develop two new quantization processes for this framework: (1) suggestive annotation with quantiza- tion for highly representative training samples, and (2) network training with quantization for high accuracy. Extensive experiments on the MICCAI Gland dataset show that both quantization processes can improve the segmentation performance, and our proposed method exceeds the current state-of-the-art performance by up to 1%. In addition, our method has a reduction of up to 6.4x on memory usage.

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In this work, we present a deep learning framework for multi-class breast cancer image classification as our submission to the International Conference on Image Analysis and Recognition (ICIAR) 2018 Grand Challenge on BreAst Cancer Histology images (BACH). As these histology images are too large to fit into GPU memory, we first propose using Inception V3 to perform patch level classification. The patch level predictions are then passed through an ensemble fusion framework involving majority voting, gradient boosting machine (GBM), and logistic regression to obtain the image level prediction. We improve the sensitivity of the Normal and Benign predicted classes by designing a Dual Path Network (DPN) to be used as a feature extractor where these extracted features are further sent to a second layer of ensemble prediction fusion using GBM, logistic regression, and support vector machine (SVM) to refine predictions. Experimental results demonstrate our framework shows a 12.5$\%$ improvement over the state-of-the-art model.

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While deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs) have shown a great success in single-label image classification, it is important to note that real world images generally contain multiple labels, which could correspond to different objects, scenes, actions and attributes in an image. Traditional approaches to multi-label image classification learn independent classifiers for each category and employ ranking or thresholding on the classification results. These techniques, although working well, fail to explicitly exploit the label dependencies in an image. In this paper, we utilize recurrent neural networks (RNNs) to address this problem. Combined with CNNs, the proposed CNN-RNN framework learns a joint image-label embedding to characterize the semantic label dependency as well as the image-label relevance, and it can be trained end-to-end from scratch to integrate both information in a unified framework. Experimental results on public benchmark datasets demonstrate that the proposed architecture achieves better performance than the state-of-the-art multi-label classification model

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Convolutional networks are powerful visual models that yield hierarchies of features. We show that convolutional networks by themselves, trained end-to-end, pixels-to-pixels, exceed the state-of-the-art in semantic segmentation. Our key insight is to build "fully convolutional" networks that take input of arbitrary size and produce correspondingly-sized output with efficient inference and learning. We define and detail the space of fully convolutional networks, explain their application to spatially dense prediction tasks, and draw connections to prior models. We adapt contemporary classification networks (AlexNet, the VGG net, and GoogLeNet) into fully convolutional networks and transfer their learned representations by fine-tuning to the segmentation task. We then define a novel architecture that combines semantic information from a deep, coarse layer with appearance information from a shallow, fine layer to produce accurate and detailed segmentations. Our fully convolutional network achieves state-of-the-art segmentation of PASCAL VOC (20% relative improvement to 62.2% mean IU on 2012), NYUDv2, and SIFT Flow, while inference takes one third of a second for a typical image.

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