As the first step to model emotional state of a person, we build sentiment analysis models with existing deep neural network algorithms and compare the models with psychological measurements to enlighten the relationship. In the experiments, we first examined psychological state of 64 participants and asked them to summarize the story of a book, Chronicle of a Death Foretold (Marquez, 1981). Secondly, we trained models using crawled 365,802 movie review data; then we evaluated participants' summaries using the pretrained model as a concept of transfer learning. With the background that emotion affects on memories, we investigated the relationship between the evaluation score of the summaries from computational models and the examined psychological measurements. The result shows that although CNN performed the best among other deep neural network algorithms (LSTM, GRU), its results are not related to the psychological state. Rather, GRU shows more explainable results depending on the psychological state. The contribution of this paper can be summarized as follows: (1) we enlighten the relationship between computational models and psychological measurements. (2) we suggest this framework as objective methods to evaluate the emotion; the real sentiment analysis of a person.
While the general task of textual sentiment classification has been widely studied, much less research looks specifically at sentiment between a specified source and target. To tackle this problem, we experimented with a state-of-the-art relation extraction model. Surprisingly, we found that despite reasonable performance, the model's attention was often systematically misaligned with the words that contribute to sentiment. Thus, we directly trained the model's attention with human rationales and improved our model performance by a robust 4~8 points on all tasks we defined on our data sets. We also present a rigorous analysis of the model's attention, both trained and untrained, using novel and intuitive metrics. Our results show that untrained attention does not provide faithful explanations; however, trained attention with concisely annotated human rationales not only increases performance, but also brings faithful explanations. Encouragingly, a small amount of annotated human rationales suffice to correct the attention in our task.
Sentiment analysis is a widely studied NLP task where the goal is to determine opinions, emotions, and evaluations of users towards a product, an entity or a service that they are reviewing. One of the biggest challenges for sentiment analysis is that it is highly language dependent. Word embeddings, sentiment lexicons, and even annotated data are language specific. Further, optimizing models for each language is very time consuming and labor intensive especially for recurrent neural network models. From a resource perspective, it is very challenging to collect data for different languages. In this paper, we look for an answer to the following research question: can a sentiment analysis model trained on a language be reused for sentiment analysis in other languages, Russian, Spanish, Turkish, and Dutch, where the data is more limited? Our goal is to build a single model in the language with the largest dataset available for the task, and reuse it for languages that have limited resources. For this purpose, we train a sentiment analysis model using recurrent neural networks with reviews in English. We then translate reviews in other languages and reuse this model to evaluate the sentiments. Experimental results show that our robust approach of single model trained on English reviews statistically significantly outperforms the baselines in several different languages.
Starting with the idea that sentiment analysis models should be able to predict not only positive or negative but also other psychological states of a person, we implement a sentiment analysis model to investigate the relationship between the model and emotional state. We first examine psychological measurements of 64 participants and ask them to write a book report about a story. After that, we train our sentiment analysis model using crawled movie review data. We finally evaluate participants' writings, using the pretrained model as a concept of transfer learning. The result shows that sentiment analysis model performs good at predicting a score, but the score does not have any correlation with human's self-checked sentiment.
We propose a novel approach to multimodal sentiment analysis using deep neural networks combining visual analysis and natural language processing. Our goal is different than the standard sentiment analysis goal of predicting whether a sentence expresses positive or negative sentiment; instead, we aim to infer the latent emotional state of the user. Thus, we focus on predicting the emotion word tags attached by users to their Tumblr posts, treating these as "self-reported emotions." We demonstrate that our multimodal model combining both text and image features outperforms separate models based solely on either images or text. Our model's results are interpretable, automatically yielding sensible word lists associated with emotions. We explore the structure of emotions implied by our model and compare it to what has been posited in the psychology literature, and validate our model on a set of images that have been used in psychology studies. Finally, our work also provides a useful tool for the growing academic study of images - both photographs and memes - on social networks.
Movie recommendation systems provide users with ranked lists of movies based on individual's preferences and constraints. Two types of models are commonly used to generate ranking results: long-term models and session-based models. While long-term models represent the interactions between users and movies that are supposed to change slowly across time, session-based models encode the information of users' interests and changing dynamics of movies' attributes in short terms. In this paper, we propose an LSIC model, leveraging Long and Short-term Information in Content-aware movie recommendation using adversarial training. In the adversarial process, we train a generator as an agent of reinforcement learning which recommends the next movie to a user sequentially. We also train a discriminator which attempts to distinguish the generated list of movies from the real records. The poster information of movies is integrated to further improve the performance of movie recommendation, which is specifically essential when few ratings are available. The experiments demonstrate that the proposed model has robust superiority over competitors and sets the state-of-the-art. We will release the source code of this work after publication.
The Rohingya Movement and Crisis caused a huge uproar in the political and economic state of Bangladesh. Refugee movement is a recurring event and a large amount of data in the form of opinions remains on social media such as Facebook, with very little analysis done on them.To analyse the comments based on all Rohingya related posts, we had to create and modify a classifier based on the Support Vector Machine algorithm. The code is implemented in python and uses scikit-learn library. A dataset on Rohingya analysis is not currently available so we had to use our own data set of 2500 positive and 2500 negative comments. We specifically used a support vector machine with linear kernel. A previous experiment was performed by us on the same dataset using the naive bayes algorithm, but that did not yield impressive results.
Sentiment analysis is proven to be very useful tool in many applications regarding social media. This has led to a great surge of research in this field. Hence, in this paper, we compile the baselines for such research. In this paper, we explore three different deep-learning based architectures for multimodal sentiment classification, each improving upon the previous. Further, we evaluate these architectures with multiple datasets with fixed train/test partition. We also discuss some major issues, frequently ignored in multimodal sentiment analysis research, e.g., role of speaker-exclusive models, importance of different modalities, and generalizability. This framework illustrates the different facets of analysis to be considered while performing multimodal sentiment analysis and, hence, serves as a new benchmark for future research in this emerging field. We draw a comparison among the methods using empirical data, obtained from the experiments. In the future, we plan to focus on extracting semantics from visual features, cross-modal features and fusion.
Sentiment analysis is essential in many real-world applications such as stance detection, review analysis, recommendation system, and so on. Sentiment analysis becomes more difficult when the data is noisy and collected from social media. India is a multilingual country; people use more than one languages to communicate within themselves. The switching in between the languages is called code-switching or code-mixing, depending upon the type of mixing. This paper presents overview of the shared task on sentiment analysis of code-mixed data pairs of Hindi-English and Bengali-English collected from the different social media platform. The paper describes the task, dataset, evaluation, baseline and participant's systems.
While existing machine learning models have achieved great success for sentiment classification, they typically do not explicitly capture sentiment-oriented word interaction, which can lead to poor results for fine-grained analysis at the snippet level (a phrase or sentence). Factorization Machine provides a possible approach to learning element-wise interaction for recommender systems, but they are not directly applicable to our task due to the inability to model contexts and word sequences. In this work, we develop two Position-aware Factorization Machines which consider word interaction, context and position information. Such information is jointly encoded in a set of sentiment-oriented word interaction vectors. Compared to traditional word embeddings, SWI vectors explicitly capture sentiment-oriented word interaction and simplify the parameter learning. Experimental results show that while they have comparable performance with state-of-the-art methods for document-level classification, they benefit the snippet/sentence-level sentiment analysis.
This project addresses the problem of sentiment analysis in twitter; that is classifying tweets according to the sentiment expressed in them: positive, negative or neutral. Twitter is an online micro-blogging and social-networking platform which allows users to write short status updates of maximum length 140 characters. It is a rapidly expanding service with over 200 million registered users - out of which 100 million are active users and half of them log on twitter on a daily basis - generating nearly 250 million tweets per day. Due to this large amount of usage we hope to achieve a reflection of public sentiment by analysing the sentiments expressed in the tweets. Analysing the public sentiment is important for many applications such as firms trying to find out the response of their products in the market, predicting political elections and predicting socioeconomic phenomena like stock exchange. The aim of this project is to develop a functional classifier for accurate and automatic sentiment classification of an unknown tweet stream.