To address the long-standing data sparsity problem in recommender systems (RSs), cross-domain recommendation (CDR) has been proposed to leverage the relatively richer information from a richer domain to improve the recommendation performance in a sparser domain. Although CDR has been extensively studied in recent years, there is a lack of a systematic review of the existing CDR approaches. To fill this gap, in this paper, we provide a comprehensive review of existing CDR approaches, including challenges, research progress, and future directions. Specifically, we first summarize existing CDR approaches into four types, including single-target CDR, multi-domain recommendation, dual-target CDR, and multi-target CDR. We then present the definitions and challenges of these CDR approaches. Next, we propose a full-view categorization and new taxonomies on these approaches and report their research progress in detail. In the end, we share several promising research directions in CDR.
Adversarial training is one of the most effective approaches defending against adversarial examples for deep learning models. Unlike other defense strategies, adversarial training aims to promote the robustness of models intrinsically. During the last few years, adversarial training has been studied and discussed from various aspects. A variety of improvements and developments of adversarial training are proposed, which were, however, neglected in existing surveys. For the first time in this survey, we systematically review the recent progress on adversarial training for adversarial robustness with a novel taxonomy. Then we discuss the generalization problems in adversarial training from three perspectives. Finally, we highlight the challenges which are not fully tackled and present potential future directions.
Cross domain recommender systems have been increasingly valuable for helping consumers identify useful items in different applications. However, existing cross-domain models typically require large number of overlap users, which can be difficult to obtain in some applications. In addition, they did not consider the duality structure of cross-domain recommendation tasks, thus failing to take into account bidirectional latent relations between users and items and achieve optimal recommendation performance. To address these issues, in this paper we propose a novel cross-domain recommendation model based on dual learning that transfers information between two related domains in an iterative manner until the learning process stabilizes. We develop a novel latent orthogonal mapping to extract user preferences over multiple domains while preserving relations between users across different latent spaces. Furthermore, we combine the dual learning method with the metric learning approach, which allows us to significantly reduce the required common user overlap across the two domains and leads to even better cross-domain recommendation performance. We test the proposed model on two large-scale industrial datasets and six domain pairs, demonstrating that it consistently and significantly outperforms all the state-of-the-art baselines. We also show that the proposed model works well with very few overlap users to obtain satisfying recommendation performance comparable to the state-of-the-art baselines that use many overlap users.
Recommender systems exploit interaction history to estimate user preference, having been heavily used in a wide range of industry applications. However, static recommendation models are difficult to answer two important questions well due to inherent shortcomings: (a) What exactly does a user like? (b) Why does a user like an item? The shortcomings are due to the way that static models learn user preference, i.e., without explicit instructions and active feedback from users. The recent rise of conversational recommender systems (CRSs) changes this situation fundamentally. In a CRS, users and the system can dynamically communicate through natural language interactions, which provide unprecedented opportunities to explicitly obtain the exact preference of users. Considerable efforts, spread across disparate settings and applications, have been put into developing CRSs. Existing models, technologies, and evaluation methods for CRSs are far from mature. In this paper, we provide a systematic review of the techniques used in current CRSs. We summarize the key challenges of developing CRSs into five directions: (1) Question-based user preference elicitation. (2) Multi-turn conversational recommendation strategies. (3) Dialogue understanding and generation. (4) Exploitation-exploration trade-offs. (5) Evaluation and user simulation. These research directions involve multiple research fields like information retrieval (IR), natural language processing (NLP), and human-computer interaction (HCI). Based on these research directions, we discuss some future challenges and opportunities. We provide a road map for researchers from multiple communities to get started in this area. We hope this survey helps to identify and address challenges in CRSs and inspire future research.
To solve the information explosion problem and enhance user experience in various online applications, recommender systems have been developed to model users preferences. Although numerous efforts have been made toward more personalized recommendations, recommender systems still suffer from several challenges, such as data sparsity and cold start. In recent years, generating recommendations with the knowledge graph as side information has attracted considerable interest. Such an approach can not only alleviate the abovementioned issues for a more accurate recommendation, but also provide explanations for recommended items. In this paper, we conduct a systematical survey of knowledge graph-based recommender systems. We collect recently published papers in this field and summarize them from two perspectives. On the one hand, we investigate the proposed algorithms by focusing on how the papers utilize the knowledge graph for accurate and explainable recommendation. On the other hand, we introduce datasets used in these works. Finally, we propose several potential research directions in this field.
Cross domain recommender systems have been increasingly valuable for helping consumers identify the most satisfying items from different categories. However, previously proposed cross-domain models did not take into account bidirectional latent relations between users and items. In addition, they do not explicitly model information of user and item features, while utilizing only user ratings information for recommendations. To address these concerns, in this paper we propose a novel approach to cross-domain recommendations based on the mechanism of dual learning that transfers information between two related domains in an iterative manner until the learning process stabilizes. We develop a novel latent orthogonal mapping to extract user preferences over multiple domains while preserving relations between users across different latent spaces. Combining with autoencoder approach to extract the latent essence of feature information, we propose Deep Dual Transfer Cross Domain Recommendation (DDTCDR) model to provide recommendations in respective domains. We test the proposed method on a large dataset containing three domains of movies, book and music items and demonstrate that it consistently and significantly outperforms several state-of-the-art baselines and also classical transfer learning approaches.
The question addressed in this paper is: If we present to a user an AI system that explains how it works, how do we know whether the explanation works and the user has achieved a pragmatic understanding of the AI? In other words, how do we know that an explanainable AI system (XAI) is any good? Our focus is on the key concepts of measurement. We discuss specific methods for evaluating: (1) the goodness of explanations, (2) whether users are satisfied by explanations, (3) how well users understand the AI systems, (4) how curiosity motivates the search for explanations, (5) whether the user's trust and reliance on the AI are appropriate, and finally, (6) how the human-XAI work system performs. The recommendations we present derive from our integration of extensive research literatures and our own psychometric evaluations.
Explainable Recommendation refers to the personalized recommendation algorithms that address the problem of why -- they not only provide the user with the recommendations, but also make the user aware why such items are recommended by generating recommendation explanations, which help to improve the effectiveness, efficiency, persuasiveness, and user satisfaction of recommender systems. In recent years, a large number of explainable recommendation approaches -- especially model-based explainable recommendation algorithms -- have been proposed and adopted in real-world systems. In this survey, we review the work on explainable recommendation that has been published in or before the year of 2018. We first high-light the position of explainable recommendation in recommender system research by categorizing recommendation problems into the 5W, i.e., what, when, who, where, and why. We then conduct a comprehensive survey of explainable recommendation itself in terms of three aspects: 1) We provide a chronological research line of explanations in recommender systems, including the user study approaches in the early years, as well as the more recent model-based approaches. 2) We provide a taxonomy for explainable recommendation algorithms, including user-based, item-based, model-based, and post-model explanations. 3) We summarize the application of explainable recommendation in different recommendation tasks, including product recommendation, social recommendation, POI recommendation, etc. We devote a chapter to discuss the explanation perspectives in the broader IR and machine learning settings, as well as their relationship with explainable recommendation research. We end the survey by discussing potential future research directions to promote the explainable recommendation research area.
The cross-domain recommendation technique is an effective way of alleviating the data sparsity in recommender systems by leveraging the knowledge from relevant domains. Transfer learning is a class of algorithms underlying these techniques. In this paper, we propose a novel transfer learning approach for cross-domain recommendation by using neural networks as the base model. We assume that hidden layers in two base networks are connected by cross mappings, leading to the collaborative cross networks (CoNet). CoNet enables dual knowledge transfer across domains by introducing cross connections from one base network to another and vice versa. CoNet is achieved in multi-layer feedforward networks by adding dual connections and joint loss functions, which can be trained efficiently by back-propagation. The proposed model is evaluated on two real-world datasets and it outperforms baseline models by relative improvements of 3.56\% in MRR and 8.94\% in NDCG, respectively.
Music recommender systems (MRS) have experienced a boom in recent years, thanks to the emergence and success of online streaming services, which nowadays make available almost all music in the world at the user's fingertip. While today's MRS considerably help users to find interesting music in these huge catalogs, MRS research is still facing substantial challenges. In particular when it comes to build, incorporate, and evaluate recommendation strategies that integrate information beyond simple user--item interactions or content-based descriptors, but dig deep into the very essence of listener needs, preferences, and intentions, MRS research becomes a big endeavor and related publications quite sparse. The purpose of this trends and survey article is twofold. We first identify and shed light on what we believe are the most pressing challenges MRS research is facing, from both academic and industry perspectives. We review the state of the art towards solving these challenges and discuss its limitations. Second, we detail possible future directions and visions we contemplate for the further evolution of the field. The article should therefore serve two purposes: giving the interested reader an overview of current challenges in MRS research and providing guidance for young researchers by identifying interesting, yet under-researched, directions in the field.
Transfer learning has attracted a large amount of interest and research in last decades, and some efforts have been made to build more precise recommendation systems. Most previous transfer recommendation systems assume that the target domain shares the same/similar rating patterns with the auxiliary source domain, which is used to improve the recommendation performance. However, to the best of our knowledge, almost these works do not consider the characteristics of sequential data. In this paper, we study the new cross-domain recommendation scenario for mining novelty-seeking trait. Recent studies in psychology suggest that novelty-seeking trait is highly related to consumer behavior, which has a profound business impact on online recommendation. Previous work performing on only one single target domain may not fully characterize users' novelty-seeking trait well due to the data scarcity and sparsity, leading to the poor recommendation performance. Along this line, we proposed a new cross-domain novelty-seeking trait mining model (CDNST for short) to improve the sequential recommendation performance by transferring the knowledge from auxiliary source domain. We conduct systematic experiments on three domain data sets crawled from Douban (www.douban.com) to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed model. Moreover, we analyze how the temporal property of sequential data affects the performance of CDNST, and conduct simulation experiments to validate our analysis.