Modern deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs) for image classification and object detection are often trained offline on large static datasets. Some applications, however, will require training in real-time on live video streams with a human-in-the-loop. We refer to this class of problem as time-ordered online training (ToOT). These problems will require a consideration of not only the quantity of incoming training data, but the human effort required to annotate and use it. We demonstrate and evaluate a system tailored to training an object detector on a live video stream with minimal input from a human operator. We show that we can obtain bounding box annotation from weakly-supervised single-point clicks through interactive segmentation. Furthermore, by exploiting the time-ordered nature of the video stream through object tracking, we can increase the average training benefit of human interactions by 3-4 times.
It is a common paradigm in object detection frameworks to treat all samples equally and target at maximizing the performance on average. In this work, we revisit this paradigm through a careful study on how different samples contribute to the overall performance measured in terms of mAP. Our study suggests that the samples in each mini-batch are neither independent nor equally important, and therefore a better classifier on average does not necessarily mean higher mAP. Motivated by this study, we propose the notion of Prime Samples, those that play a key role in driving the detection performance. We further develop a simple yet effective sampling and learning strategy called PrIme Sample Attention (PISA) that directs the focus of the training process towards such samples. Our experiments demonstrate that it is often more effective to focus on prime samples than hard samples when training a detector. Particularly, On the MSCOCO dataset, PISA outperforms the random sampling baseline and hard mining schemes, e.g. OHEM and Focal Loss, consistently by more than 1% on both single-stage and two-stage detectors, with a strong backbone ResNeXt-101.
In recent years, object detection has experienced impressive progress. Despite these improvements, there is still a significant gap in the performance between the detection of small and large objects. We analyze the current state-of-the-art model, Mask-RCNN, on a challenging dataset, MS COCO. We show that the overlap between small ground-truth objects and the predicted anchors is much lower than the expected IoU threshold. We conjecture this is due to two factors; (1) only a few images are containing small objects, and (2) small objects do not appear enough even within each image containing them. We thus propose to oversample those images with small objects and augment each of those images by copy-pasting small objects many times. It allows us to trade off the quality of the detector on large objects with that on small objects. We evaluate different pasting augmentation strategies, and ultimately, we achieve 9.7\% relative improvement on the instance segmentation and 7.1\% on the object detection of small objects, compared to the current state of the art method on MS COCO.
3D vehicle detection and tracking from a monocular camera requires detecting and associating vehicles, and estimating their locations and extents together. It is challenging because vehicles are in constant motion and it is practically impossible to recover the 3D positions from a single image. In this paper, we propose a novel framework that jointly detects and tracks 3D vehicle bounding boxes. Our approach leverages 3D pose estimation to learn 2D patch association overtime and uses temporal information from tracking to obtain stable 3D estimation. Our method also leverages 3D box depth ordering and motion to link together the tracks of occluded objects. We train our system on realistic 3D virtual environments, collecting a new diverse, large-scale and densely annotated dataset with accurate 3D trajectory annotations. Our experiments demonstrate that our method benefits from inferring 3D for both data association and tracking robustness, leveraging our dynamic 3D tracking dataset.
We propose a method for the weakly supervised detection of objects in paintings. At training time, only image-level annotations are needed. This, combined with the efficiency of our multiple-instance learning method, enables one to learn new classes on-the-fly from globally annotated databases, avoiding the tedious task of manually marking objects. We show on several databases that dropping the instance-level annotations only yields mild performance losses. We also introduce a new database, IconArt, on which we perform detection experiments on classes that could not be learned on photographs, such as Jesus Child or Saint Sebastian. To the best of our knowledge, these are the first experiments dealing with the automatic (and in our case weakly supervised) detection of iconographic elements in paintings. We believe that such a method is of great benefit for helping art historians to explore large digital databases.
Multiple object tracking (MOT) in urban traffic aims to produce the trajectories of the different road users that move across the field of view with different directions and speeds and that can have varying appearances and sizes. Occlusions and interactions among the different objects are expected and common due to the nature of urban road traffic. In this work, a tracking framework employing classification label information from a deep learning detection approach is used for associating the different objects, in addition to object position and appearances. We want to investigate the performance of a modern multiclass object detector for the MOT task in traffic scenes. Results show that the object labels improve tracking performance, but that the output of object detectors are not always reliable.
Latest deep learning methods for object detection provide remarkable performance, but have limits when used in robotic applications. One of the most relevant issues is the long training time, which is due to the large size and imbalance of the associated training sets, characterized by few positive and a large number of negative examples (i.e. background). Proposed approaches are based on end-to-end learning by back-propagation  or kernel methods trained with Hard Negatives Mining on top of deep features . These solutions are effective, but prohibitively slow for on-line applications. In this paper we propose a novel pipeline for object detection that overcomes this problem and provides comparable performance, with a 60x training speedup. Our pipeline combines (i) the Region Proposal Network and the deep feature extractor from  to efficiently select candidate RoIs and encode them into powerful representations, with (ii) the FALKON  algorithm, a novel kernel-based method that allows fast training on large scale problems (millions of points). We address the size and imbalance of training data by exploiting the stochastic subsampling intrinsic into the method and a novel, fast, bootstrapping approach. We assess the effectiveness of the approach on a standard Computer Vision dataset (PASCAL VOC 2007 ) and demonstrate its applicability to a real robotic scenario with the iCubWorld Transformations  dataset.
Although it is well believed for years that modeling relations between objects would help object recognition, there has not been evidence that the idea is working in the deep learning era. All state-of-the-art object detection systems still rely on recognizing object instances individually, without exploiting their relations during learning. This work proposes an object relation module. It processes a set of objects simultaneously through interaction between their appearance feature and geometry, thus allowing modeling of their relations. It is lightweight and in-place. It does not require additional supervision and is easy to embed in existing networks. It is shown effective on improving object recognition and duplicate removal steps in the modern object detection pipeline. It verifies the efficacy of modeling object relations in CNN based detection. It gives rise to the first fully end-to-end object detector.
In order to track all persons in a scene, the tracking-by-detection paradigm has proven to be a very effective approach. Yet, relying solely on a single detector is also a major limitation, as useful image information might be ignored. Consequently, this work demonstrates how to fuse two detectors into a tracking system. To obtain the trajectories, we propose to formulate tracking as a weighted graph labeling problem, resulting in a binary quadratic program. As such problems are NP-hard, the solution can only be approximated. Based on the Frank-Wolfe algorithm, we present a new solver that is crucial to handle such difficult problems. Evaluation on pedestrian tracking is provided for multiple scenarios, showing superior results over single detector tracking and standard QP-solvers. Finally, our tracker ranks 2nd on the MOT16 benchmark and 1st on the new MOT17 benchmark, outperforming over 90 trackers.
Fully convolutional neural network (FCN) has been dominating the game of face detection task for a few years with its congenital capability of sliding-window-searching with shared kernels, which boiled down all the redundant calculation, and most recent state-of-the-art methods such as Faster-RCNN, SSD, YOLO and FPN use FCN as their backbone. So here comes one question: Can we find a universal strategy to further accelerate FCN with higher accuracy, so could accelerate all the recent FCN-based methods? To analyze this, we decompose the face searching space into two orthogonal directions, `scale' and `spatial'. Only a few coordinates in the space expanded by the two base vectors indicate foreground. So if FCN could ignore most of the other points, the searching space and false alarm should be significantly boiled down. Based on this philosophy, a novel method named scale estimation and spatial attention proposal ($S^2AP$) is proposed to pay attention to some specific scales and valid locations in the image pyramid. Furthermore, we adopt a masked-convolution operation based on the attention result to accelerate FCN calculation. Experiments show that FCN-based method RPN can be accelerated by about $4\times$ with the help of $S^2AP$ and masked-FCN and at the same time it can also achieve the state-of-the-art on FDDB, AFW and MALF face detection benchmarks as well.
This paper proposes an Agile Aggregating Multi-Level feaTure framework (Agile Amulet) for salient object detection. The Agile Amulet builds on previous works to predict saliency maps using multi-level convolutional features. Compared to previous works, Agile Amulet employs some key innovations to improve training and testing speed while also increase prediction accuracy. More specifically, we first introduce a contextual attention module that can rapidly highlight most salient objects or regions with contextual pyramids. Thus, it effectively guides the learning of low-layer convolutional features and tells the backbone network where to look. The contextual attention module is a fully convolutional mechanism that simultaneously learns complementary features and predicts saliency scores at each pixel. In addition, we propose a novel method to aggregate multi-level deep convolutional features. As a result, we are able to use the integrated side-output features of pre-trained convolutional networks alone, which significantly reduces the model parameters leading to a model size of 67 MB, about half of Amulet. Compared to other deep learning based saliency methods, Agile Amulet is of much lighter-weight, runs faster (30 fps in real-time) and achieves higher performance on seven public benchmarks in terms of both quantitative and qualitative evaluation.